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In modified radical neck dissection, the structure preserved is:

 # In modified radical neck dissection, the structure preserved is:
A. Submandibular gland
B. Spinal accessory nerve
C. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
D. Internal jugular vein



The correct answer is A. Submandibular gland.

Radical neck dissection (RND)
Removal of all cervical lymphatics and lymph nodes from level IV, with sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve, the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein.

Modified radical neck dissection (MRND)
Involves the removal of cervical lymphatics and lymph nodes from levels IV along with one or more of the non lymphatic structures mentioned below:
• The spinal accessory nerve (SAN)
• The internal jugular vein (IJV)
• The sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM)

MCQs on General Pathology - Wound Healing and Repair


# Synthesis of DNA occurs in which phase of cell cycle?
A. Mitosis-M phase
B. Gap- G1 phase
C. Gap-G2 phase
D. Synthesis- S phase

# Correct sequence of cell cycle is:
A. G0-G1-S-G2-M
B. G0-G1-G2-S-M
C. G0-M-G2-S-G1
D. G0-G1-S-M-G2

General Pathology MCQs - Pathological Deposits


# Which of the following is a interstitial accumulation that leads to compression and degeneration of cell?
A. Amyloid
B. Protein accumulation such as Russel bodies seen in plasma cell
C. Fat accumulation seen in fatty liver
D. Hydropic and vascular changes due to water accumulation

# All of the following characteristics of amyloid can be used to distinguish it from other hyaline degeneration EXCEPT:
A. Intracellular accumulation
B. Affinity for congo red stain
C. It is formed due to accumulation of immunoglobulins
D. Immunofluorescein isothiocyanate test or secondary to predisposing diseases

Lyonization type of Amelogenesis imperfecta is seen in:

 # Lyonization type of Amelogenesis imperfecta is seen in:
A. X linked dominant
B. Autosomal dominant
C. Autosomal recessive
D. X linked recessive



The correct answer is A. X linked dominant.

Lyonization- The inactivation of an X chromosome. It is seen in X linked dominant diseases.
It is named after geneticist Mary Lyon. The process of lyonization is the deactivation of the genes of one random X chromosome in women to avoid duplication of the genes. 

The principal action of ammonia in syncope is as a:

 # The principal action of ammonia in syncope is as a:
A. Respiratory stimulant
B. Vagal stimulant
C. Vasomotor stimulant
D. Inhibitor of vasomotor tone



The correct answer is A. Respiratory Stimulant.

Aromatic ammonia is used to treat vasodepressor syncope as well as respiratory depression not induced by opioid analgesics

Aromatic ammonia is the agent of choice for inclusion in the emergency kit as a respiratory stimulant. It is available in a silver-gray vaporole, which is crushed and placed under the breathing victim’s nose until respiratory stimulation is effected. Aromatic ammonia has a noxious odor and irritates the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, stimulating the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the medulla. This action in turn increases respiration and blood pressure. Movement of the arms and legs often occurs in response to ammonia inhalation; these movements further increase blood flow and raise blood pressure, especially in the patient who has been positioned properly (e.g., supine with feet elevated slightly).

Flap with no vertical incision is called:

 # Flap with no vertical incision is called:
A. Triangular
B. Semilunar
C. Envelope
D. Trapezoidal



The correct answer is: C. Envelope

Basic requirements of a flap:
• Flap must be designed to provide an adequate exposure of the surgical area.
• Flap must have a broad base and good vascular supply.
• When placed back, flap should rest on healthy bone.

Envelop flap: Incision along free gingival margin with no vertical incision. 

Two sided triangular flap: It is an envelop flap with a releasing incision on one side.

Three sided rhomboid flap: It is modification of two sided flap with addition of a second vertical incision.

Semilunar flap: is designed when periapical area is required to be exposed. It is always kept 5mm away from the gingival margin.

Pedicle flap; It is a flap based on a particular blood vessel. Eg:- Palatal flap along the length of greater palatine artery. 

Random flaps: Flaps that are not based on a specific blood vessel.

Extraction of tooth during acute infection:

 # Extraction of tooth during acute infection:
A. Can cause extensive spread of infection
B. Helps drainage and relieves pain if proper antibiotic is given and its adequate blood level is reached
C. Can cause sudden death due to pulmonary embolism
D. Can lead to trigeminal neuralgia in postoperative period



The correct answer is B. Helps drainage and relieves pain if proper antibiotic is given and its adequate blood level is reached

The most rapid resolution of an infection secondary to pulpal necrosis is obtained, when the tooth is removed as early as possible. Therefore acute infection should not be a contraindication to extraction. If access and anesthetic considerations can be met, the tooth should be removed as early as possible after maintaining proper antibiotic level. 

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