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Which type of ameloblastoma appears to be aggressive with a marked proclivity for recurrence?

 # Which type of ameloblastoma appears to be aggressive with a marked proclivity for recurrence?
A. Follicular ameloblastoma
B. Plexiform ameloblastoma
C. Granular cell ameloblastoma
D. Acanthomatous ameloblastoma




The correct answer is C. Granular cell ameloblastoma.

Granular cell ameloblastoma is aggressive with a marked proclivity for recurrence. Follicular has highest recurrence rate (29%) with lowest for acanthomatous (4%). If 'aggressive' is asked, 'Granular cell ameloblastoma' is the answer, if only recurrence is asked, 'follicular ameloblastoma' is the answer.

Which is the only inorganic general anesthetic in use?

 # Which is the only inorganic general anesthetic in use? 
a. Ether. 
b. Chloroform. 
c. Nitrous oxide. 
d. Cyclopropane. 



The correct answer is C. Nitrous oxide.

It is a colourless, odourless, heavier than air, noninflammable gas supplied under pressure in steel cylinders. It is nonirritating, but low potency anaesthetic; unconsciousness cannot be produced in all individuals without concomitant hypoxia; MAC is 105% implying that even pure N2O cannot produce adequate anaesthesia at 1 atmosphere pressure. Patients maintained on 70% N2O + 30% O2 along with muscle relaxants often recall the events during anaesthesia, but some lose awareness completely.



Smile Inn dental clinic, Pulchowk, lalitpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: Smile Inn dental clinic
Address (Full): Pulchowk, lalitpur
Year of Establishment: 2017
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Avinesh shrestha
CONTACT NUMBER: 9841232882
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 14998

Indian Dentists Act was formulated in:

 # Indian Dentists Act was formulated in: 
A. 1942
B. 1947
C. 1948
D. 1949



The correct answer is C. 1948.

Dentist act of India was introduced on 29th March 1948. 

Which is NOT a requirement for a local anesthetic drug?

 # Which is NOT a requirement for a local anesthetic drug? 
A. Lipid solubility. 
B. Water solubility. 
C. Precipitate in interstitial fluid. 
D. Depression of nerve conduction. 



The correct answer is C. Precipitate in interstitial fluid.

Local anesthetics must be lipid soluble in order for the drug to cross various barriers in the tissue. Local anesthetics must be water soluble to prevent the drug from precipitating when exposed to interstitial fluids. Local anesthetics must NOT precipitate in interstitial fluid because then they would be ineffective as anesthetics. A local anesthetic’s intended purpose is to block pain; therefore, it must depress nerve conduction.

Components of Acquired Enamel Pellicle

 # Which of the following is a component that is not present in the acquired enamel pellicle? 
A. Glucan. 
B. Proline-rich peptides. 
C. Glucosyltransferases. 
D. Enolase. 



The correct answer is D. Enolase.

Bacterial components such as glucosyltransferases and glucan can be detected in pellicle. Proline-rich peptides can be found in the acquired enamel pellicle. Bacterial components such as glucosyltransferases and glucan can be detected in pellicle. Enolase is an intracellular enzyme found in oral bacteria, but is not a major component of the acquired pellicle.

Etching time is more in primary teeth than permanent teeth due to:

 # Etching time is more in primary teeth than permanent teeth due to:
A. Irregular placed enamel rods
B. Aprismatic enamel
C. More inorganic matrix
D. More amount of water



The correct answer is B. Aprismatic enamel.

Deciduous teeth have an outer layer of aprismatic or prismless enamel. They require a longer etching time. Earlier it was advocated 120s, but now reduced to 60 s and more recently to 30s for bonding of pit and fissure sealants and orthodontic brackets. A significant research in this field made it clear that very long etching periods did not improve the bond strengths of the currently available adhesives. 


What is Geristore in Dentistry?

 # What is Geristore in Dentistry?
A. Rapid setting resin ionomer, has the capacity to bond with the tooth
B. ZOE based sealer
C. Obturating material specifically for deciduous tooth
D. Is a bioceramic



The correct answer is A. Rapid setting resin ionomer, has the capacity to bond with the tooth

Geristore: 
• Geristore is a dual-cure, self-adhesive, resin glass ionomer formula that contains fluoride. It is a rapid setting resin ionomer (making it very suitable for repairing perforations when compared to MTA) 

• It is hydrophilic, so it will bond in the presence of moisture and blood. 
• It has low coefficient of thermal expansion and low polymerization shrinkage. 
• It's often recommended when the periodontium is extensively involved. It is biocompatible for soft tissue and teeth - Studies show gingival cell re-attachment to the material, making it excellent for sub-gingival procedures. 

Applications: 
• Subgingival restorations for root perforation and resorptive lesions. 
• Retrograde filling material 
• Root caries lesions 
• Liner in direct pulp capping 
• In class 5, and conservative class 1 & class 2 restorations 


Teeth that are least affected by periodontal disease are:

 # Teeth that are least affected by periodontal disease are: 
A. Lower first molars and upper anteriors 
B. Lower premolars and upper canines 
C. Lower first molars and upper incisors and premolars 
D. Lower centrals, laterals and upper molars 


The correct answer is B. Lower premolars and upper canines.

Teeth least affected by periodontitis are upper canine and lower second premolar. Most affected are lower molars. The teeth that are moderately affected by periodontal disease are all the upper molars; the upper centrals. laterals, and premolars; and the lower canines. 



The malleting force is directed:

 # The malleting force is directed:
A. Perpendicular to the walls
B. Parallel to the long axis of crown
C. 45 degrees to the wall
D. 30 degrees to the wall



The correct answer is C. 45 degrees to the wall.

To ensure dense masses in corners and at the junction between two walls, the line of force must be directed to bisect line angles and trisect point angles.

Which of the following is not a function of flux?

 # Which of the following is not a function of flux?
A. To remove any oxide coating on parent metal
B. To restrict the flow of solder over the parent metal
C. To protect metal surface from oxidation during soldering procedures
D. To permit the flow of solder over parent metal


The correct answer is B. To restrict the flow of solder over the parent metal, this is the function of antiflux, not flux.

The Latin word ‘flux’ means flow. For a solder to wet and flow properly, the parent metal must be free of oxides. This is accomplished with the help of a flux.

FUNCTION OF FLUX
1. To remove any oxide coating on the parent metal.
2. To protect the metal surface from oxidation during soldering.

TYPES
Fluxes may be divided into three activity types.
- Protective: This type covers the metal surface and prevents access to oxygen so no oxide can form.
- Reducing: This reduces any oxide present to free metal and oxygen.
- Solvent: This type dissolves any oxide present and carries it away. Most fluxes are usually
combination of two or more of the above.




The temperature difference between gelation and liquefaction temperature of hydrocolloid is:

 # The temperature difference between gelation and liquefaction temperature of hydrocolloid is: 
A. Syneresis
B. Imbibition
C. Hysteresis
D. Chelation



The correct answer is C. Hysteresis.

Most materials melt as well as resolidify at the same temperature. However in agar this does not coincide. Gelation (solidification) occurs at 37°C approximately, whereas liquefaction (melting) occurs at a higher temperature, i.e., 60 to 70°C higher than the gelation temperature. This temperature lag between liquefaction and gelation is known as hysteresis.

Burning sensation of tongue is termed:

 # Burning sensation of tongue is termed:
A. Glossopyrosis 
B. Glossodynia
C. Glossoptosis
D. Odynophagia



The correct answer is A. Glossopyrosis.

Glossopyrosis is burning tongue. Various systemic and local factors had been suggested as the etiology of burning tongue, like nutritional deficiency, diabetes, gastric hyperacidity, psychological factors, xerostomia, candidiasis, use of tobacco etc. Glossodynia is painful tongue, odynophagia is pain during swallowing. Glossoptosis is airway obstruction caused by falling back of the tongue. 


Which of the following parts of hard palate is devoid of submucosa?

 # Which of the following parts of hard palate is devoid of submucosa?
A. Anterolateral
B. Posterolateral
C. Raphe
D. Incisive papilla


The correct answer is C. Raphe.

Masticatory mucosa in the oral cavity covers the gingiva and hard palate. In gingiva a separate submucosal layer does not exist as compared to hard palate. Underlying tissue without intervening submucosa and is called as mucoperiosteum. In hard palate, submucosa is absent in regions adjacent to gingiva and midpalatal raphe. In midpalatal raphe, submucosa is absent and dense lamina propria directly attaches to the bone. In anterolateral parts submucosa is rich in fatty adipose tissue and posterolateral regions it is glandular in nature with numerous minor salivary glands. 

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Helena Vinayak Dental Clinic Pvt. Ltd. Kageshowri Manohara 9,Bagmati zone, Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Helena Vinayak Dental Clinic Pvt. Ltd.
Address (Full): Kageshowri Manohara 9,Bagmati zone, Kathmandu..
Year of Establishment: 2015A.D. (2072 B.S.)
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Helena Khadka
CONTACT NUMBER: 9849895320
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 13625

Aarambha Dental Care, Beltar, chaudandigadi nagarpalika 7,Udaypur, Nepal

 Name of Dental Clinic: Aarambha Dental Care
Address (Full): Beltar, chaudandigadi nagarpalika 7,Udaypur, Nepal
Year of Establishment: 2077/11/04
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Bimal Deo
CONTACT NUMBER: 9862815412
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 24284

Darshan dental clinic, Janakpur -9 , province 2 , Madhesh pradesh

 Name of Dental Clinic: Darshan dental clinic
Address (Full): Janakpur -9 , province 2 , Madhesh pradesh
Year of Establishment: 2079
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon:  Dr Smriti Pandit
CONTACT NUMBER: 9844187433
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 26390

Why impacted third molars should be removed as soon as possible?

 Wisdom teeth or third molars usually enter the mouth between the ages of 17 and 25, a time of life that has been called the age of wisdom. When a tooth is blocked by another tooth or grows in a manner that makes it impossible to enter the mouth normally, it is said to be impacted. Many people have one or more impacted wisdom teeth. This article explains how third molar surgery can help prevent later problems in your mouth and teeth if wisdom teeth are to be extracted. We like to remove them when patients are younger: late teens or early twenties because it's an easier surgery for patients, the bone is more forgiving, the teeth aren't fully formed and we don't have to worry about the roots being close to important structures like the nerves in the lower jaw and the sinuses in the upper jaw. 

The problem with third molars is that they often do not have enough space to grow into the mouth. For some patients, the teeth do come in but are so difficult to keep clean that it's better to remove them so that they do not develop problems that affect the teeth in front of the third molars. Sometimes these teeth are stuck or impacted underneath the gums that gives them the potential to develop cysts and cause other problems later in life. Because the likelihood that impacted third molars can cause problems now or problems in the future they are generally recommended for removal when a person reaches the late teens or early twenties. Many orthodontists refer their patients to an oral surgeon for wisdom tooth extraction to alleviate hygiene challenges and minimize the possibility of gum disease cavities and other problems that could affect the success of orthodontic treatment. If your orthodontist recommends extraction, you'll meet with the oral and maxillofacial surgeon beforehand. The surgeon will evaluate your particular situation and may perform certain diagnostic tests for surgery. It's very important that the mouth be clean. We ask patients to brush and floss their teeth as usual.

Impacted left lower third molar tooth and left upper supernumerary distomolar


Wisdom teeth are usually removed under general sedation although sometimes only local anesthesia is used. Patients who will receive an intravenous anesthesia should not eat or drink for six hours before surgery. It's best to go to surgery wearing loose and comfortable clothing. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon selects the method that is best for each patient. The length and complexity of third molar surgery depends on a number of factors: it includes the position of the tooth, the length and curvature of the roots, the thickness of the bone surrounding the teeth and the patient's overall physical condition and health. In general, a young adult's wisdom teeth have incomplete root systems making tooth removal relatively uncomplicated. As wisdom teeth continue to grow, their roots lengthen and may become tangled with the sensory nerves that run through the lower jaw. When that happens surgery is more difficult and complications are more likely. If the tooth is impacted, an incision is made in the gum tissue which is turned back so the tooth can be seen. If bone is covering the tooth, some of it may need to be removed in order to expose the tooth this tooth may be removed in one piece or in some cases it may be cut into sections. 

The removal of impacted wisdom teeth usually takes 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Once the wisdom teeth are removed, the gum tissue is sutured. Following surgery patients rest under supervision in the oral surgery office until they are ready to be taken home. Before leaving for home, patients are given specific post surgical instructions and prescriptions including pain medication. The best outcome is the ability of patients to be able to properly maintain the rest of the teeth they're keeping long-term. Patients can expect to experience improved dental hygiene and ease of home care. 

Article By: Dr. Raman Dhungel, BDS (BPKIHS)

Rolpali Muskan Dental clinic, Libang, Rolpa, Lumbini province

 Name of Dental Clinic: Rolpali Muskan Dental clinic 
Address (Full): Libang,Rolpa, Lumbini province
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Aamir Hussain
CONTACT NUMBER: 9865109441
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 29512

Grace Dental Care Private Limited, Banasthali Chowk, Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Grace Dental Care Private Limited 
Address (Full): Banasthali Chowk, Kathmandu 
Year of Establishment: 2022
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Bibechana Mahat 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9843219611
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 22594

The Tooth Clinic, Mahalaxmi -04, Imadol, Lalitpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: The Tooth Clinic 
Address (Full): Mahalaxmi-04, Imadol, Lalitpur 
Year of Establishment: 2022
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Stuti Wagle 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9851105155
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 13451


Zenith Dental care pvt.ltd, Hospital road(Opposite of narayani samudayik hospital),chitwan ,nepal

 Name of Dental Clinic: Zenith Dental care pvt.ltd
Address (Full): Hospital road(Opposite of narayani  samudayik hospital),chitwan ,nepal
Year of Establishment: 2078 B.S
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Archana subedi
CONTACT NUMBER: 056596545
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 19060

Bir Dental Clinic, Sadarline,Nepalgunj

 Name of Dental Clinic: Bir Dental Clinic
Address (Full): Sadarline,Nepalgunj
Year of Establishment: 2068 BS
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Ram Krishna Lamichhane
CONTACT NUMBER: 081532375
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 9040

Chandragiri Dental Home and Implant Centre Pvt. Ltd. Kausaltar 3 bhaktapur 50 meters towards balkot road

 Name of Dental Clinic: Chandragiri Dental Home and Implant Centre Pvt. Ltd.
Address (Full): Kausaltar 3 bhaktapur 50 meters towards balkot road
Year of Establishment: 2021
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Prakriti Rupakhety 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9860672540
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 30586

Imperial dental studio Pvt ltd, Butwal, sukkhanagar opposite to Tinau hospital

 Name of Dental Clinic: Imperial dental studio Pvt ltd
Address (Full): Butwal, sukkhanagar opposite to Tinau hospital
Year of Establishment: 2018
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Tanuja Singh (Prosthodontist), Dr Tika Ram Ghimire (Orthodontist)
CONTACT NUMBER: 9869672445
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 10738

Dental World Multispeciality Center Pvt. Ltd. Mangalgadhi Chowk, Birendranagar-9, Surkhet (Beside Sanima Bank)

 Name of Dental Clinic: Dental World Multispeciality Center Pvt. Ltd.
Address (Full): Mangalgadhi Chowk, Birendranagar-9, Surkhet (Beside Sanima Bank)
Year of Establishment: 2077 BS
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Naveen Mandal 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9852820876
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 15453



Natural Smile Dental Clinic Pvt.Ltd, Nagarjun1,Radha Krishna Mandir, Dhungedhara, Banasthali,Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Natural Smile Dental Clinic Pvt.Ltd
Address (Full): Nagarjun1,Radha Krishna Mandir, Dhungedhara, Banasthali,Kathmandu 
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Abhinash Adhikari
CONTACT NUMBER: 9851315930
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 31011

Divya Smile Dental Care Clinic Ekdhara,Thulobharyang ,Nagarjun 3 ,kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Divya Smile Dental Care Clinic
Address (Full): Ekdhara,Thulobharyang ,Nagarjun 3 ,kathmandu
Year of Establishment: 2077 BS
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Binita Gautam
CONTACT NUMBER:  015249173 
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 21342

Dharan Dental, Putali line, Dharan- 9

 Name of Dental Clinic: Dharan Dental 
Address (Full): Putali line,  Dharan- 9
Year of Establishment: 2002
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Nandan Shrestha 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9852045113
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 3905

Swetakali suvidha dental Pvt ltd, Yogbir Singh marg, Naradevi, Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Swetakali suvidha dental Pvt ltd 
Address (Full): Yogbir Singh marg, Naradevi, Kathmandu 
Year of Establishment: 2016
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Bijeta Panta 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9860128837
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 19973



United Dental Care Nayabazar branch, Sorrakhutte 16 Nayabazar

 Name of Dental Clinic: United Dental Care Nayabazar branch
Address (Full): Sorrakhutte 16 Nayabazar 
Year of Establishment: 2015
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Navin Singh Mouny 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9858423169
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 17167



Tilottama Dental Clinic, Tilottama 8, 4 no. Manigram, Rupandehi

 Name of Dental Clinic: Tilottama Dental Clinic
Address (Full): Tilottama 8, 4 no. Manigram, Rupandehi 
Year of Establishment: 2075
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Kavita Khanal
CONTACT NUMBER: 9847351416
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 17000

Kantipur Dental Home and Institute Pvt.Ltd Parkmod, Dhangadhi, Kailali

 Name of Dental Clinic: Kantipur Dental Home and Institute Pvt.Ltd
Address (Full): Parkmod,Dhangadhi,Kailali
Year of Establishment: 2070
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Ritraj Khadka
CONTACT NUMBER: 9857036067
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 31394

Guheswari Dental multi specialty Implant Hub, Jawalakhel lalitpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: Guheswari Dental multi specialty Implant Hub 
Address (Full): Jawalakhel lalitpur 
Year of Establishment: 2072 BS
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Ranjita Shrestha (Periodontist ), 
                                                         Dr Mukunda Regmi (Prosthodontist)
CONTACT NUMBER: 9841308845
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 5135

Aashas health care pvt ltd, Jawalakhel, lalitpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: Aashas health care pvt ltd
Address (Full): Jawalakhel, lalitpur
Year of Establishment: 2016
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Anamika Rajbhandari
CONTACT NUMBER: 9841346185
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 14092

Adwait Dental Home Pvt Ltd, Mulpani Chaur, Kageshwari Manohara - 6,Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Adwait Dental Home Pvt Ltd 
Address (Full): Mulpani Chaur, Kageshwari Manohara - 6,Kathmandu 
Year of Establishment: 2021
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Bhawana Adhikari 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9855011773
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 11520

UNITED DENTAL CARE, Chapagaun dobato -15, satdobato , lalitpur

Name of Dental Clinic: UNITED DENTAL CARE
Address (Full): Chapagaun dobato -15, satdobato , lalitpur
Year of Establishment: 2072
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Jeevan Rai
CONTACT NUMBER: 9841785843
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 15559

Bimal Dental Clinic, Free line, Hospital road, Near 9/11 Hotel, Galli no 4, Mahendranagar Bazar, Kanchanpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: Bimal Dental Clinic 
Address (Full): Free line, Hospital road, Near 9/11 Hotel, Galli no 4, Mahendranagar Bazar, Kanchanpur 
Year of Establishment: 2078, Magh 8 gate
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Bimal Chand 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9843264659
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 26750

Dent-Care Pokhara, Pokhara-8, Newroad

 Name of Dental Clinic: Dent-Care Pokhara
Address (Full): Pokhara-8, Newroad
Year of Establishment: 2077 B.S.
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Puran Bishowkarma
CONTACT NUMBER: 9856044887
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 27843

Bishahara multispeciality Dental clinic pvt ltd

 Name of Dental Clinic: Bishahara multispeciality Dental clinic pvt ltd
Address (Full): Triyuga municipality-10, setopul, udaypur, gaighat
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Ambika chaudhary
CONTACT NUMBER: 9801557967
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 22590

Sathi dental clinic, Kanchan -03 ,harraiya-Rupandehi

Name of Dental Clinic: Sathi dental clinic 
Address (Full): Kanchan -03 ,harraiya-Rupandehi
Year of Establishment: 2077
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Dhiraj barai
CONTACT NUMBER: 9867327316
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 27542

Gulmohar family dentistry, Harihar Bhawan, pulchowk , Lalitpur

 Name of Dental Clinic: Gulmohar family dentistry 
Address (Full): Harihar Bhawan, pulchowk , Lalitpur 
Year of Establishment: 2020
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Sanjay Sah
CONTACT NUMBER: 9851158031
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 6768

Manokamana Dental Care Centre, Simara, Bara

 Name of Dental Clinic: Manokamana Dental Care Centre
Address (Full): Simara, Bara
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Mukund Dahal
CONTACT NUMBER: 9845260686
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 27288

Alpha Oral Care Pvt. Ltd, Stall bazaar, Sindhuli - 6

 Name of Dental Clinic: Alpha Oral Care Pvt. Ltd
Address (Full): Stall bazaar, Sindhuli - 6
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Simpal Gupta
CONTACT NUMBER: 9844040680
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 26332

Manav dental, Ilam chowk bzar

 Name of Dental Clinic: Manav dental
Address (Full): Ilam chowk bzar
Year of Establishment: 2065
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Purushottam Pradhan 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9840095194

Astra dental clinic, Biratnagar Budhiganga 2

 Name of Dental Clinic: Astra dental clinic 
Address (Full): Biratnagar budhiganga 2
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Biswash Khatiwada 
CONTACT NUMBER: 9820728867
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 25208

Luminous dental clinic, Paknajol-16, chhetrapati(Infront of people's campus)

 Name of Dental Clinic: Luminous dental clinic 
Address (Full): Paknajol-16, chhetrapati(Infront of people's campus)
Year of Establishment: 2079/03/02
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Anandi Thapa
CONTACT NUMBER: 9867301523
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 22994

BR Dental Hospital Ghorahi Dang, Ghorahi municipality 15

 Name of Dental Clinic: BR Dental Hospital Ghorahi Dang
Address (Full): Ghorahi municipality 15
Year of Establishment: 1999
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr BP Bhusal
CONTACT NUMBER: 9847825142
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 8098

Om Karnali Dental clinic, Surkhet, Birendranagar

 Name of Dental Clinic: Om Karnali Dental clinic 
Address (Full): Surkhet, Birendranagar 
Year of Establishment: 2021
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Binod karki
CONTACT NUMBER: 9849765313
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 27169

Kalika dental clinic, Rapti road , Hetauda -10

 Name of Dental Clinic: Kalika Dental Clinic
Address (Full): Rapti road , Hetauda -10
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Shivani Koirala, Dr. Kabin Muktan
CONTACT NUMBER: 9845104828
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 28594


Prerana Dental care and Diagnostics, Koteshwor-32, Narephat, Kathmandu

 Name of Dental Clinic: Prerana Dental care and Diagnostics
Address (Full): Koteshwor-32, Narephat, Kathmandu
Year of Establishment: 2075 B.S
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Dhan Kumari Manandhar
CONTACT NUMBER: 9843084341
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 19595

GREEN LIFE HEALTH CARE, Tokha-7, Tilingtar, Dhapasi

 Name of Dental Clinic: GREEN LIFE HEALTH CARE
Address (Full): Tokha-7, Tilingtar, Dhapasi
Year of Establishment: 2078
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Sarita Dhakal
CONTACT NUMBER: 9840060606
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 12336

Pashupati Chaulagain Memorial Hospital, Bhimeshwor 3, Charikot, Dolakha

Name of Dental Clinic: Pashupati Chaulagain Memorial Hospital 
Address (Full): Bhimeshwor 3, Charikot, Dolakha
Year of Establishment: 2072
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr Abhinaw Subedi
CONTACT NUMBER: 9845466682
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 30633

We care dental and facial cosmetic clinic, Khaireni Nagarpalika - 9, Chitwan

 Name of Dental Clinic: We care dental and facial cosmetic clinic
Address (Full): Simaltandi ,Khaireni nagarpalika ward 9, chitwan 
Year of Establishment: 2021
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Appu yadav
CONTACT NUMBER: 9849111117
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 28350


The stock tray should be _______ mm larger than the ridge.

 # In primary impression, the stock tray should be _________ mm larger than ridge. 
A. 2 mm 
B. 4 mm
C. 6 mm
D. 8 mm



The correct answer is C. 6 mm.

If the tray is too large, it will distort the tissues around the borders of impression. If it is too small, the border tissues will collapse inward onto the residual ridge and thus reduce the support for the dentures.

The Bennett movement exerts its greatest influence in:

 # The Bennett movement exerts its greatest influence in:
A. Lateral movement
B. Protrusive movement 
C. Opening movement
D. Closing movement



The correct answer is A. Lateral movement.

Bennett movement is a lateral jaw movement demarcated by movement of balancfng side condyle. It is brought about by lateral pterygoid as it is attacked to neck of condyle and the capsule.

Minimum thickness of metal coping of base metal alloy is:

 # The minimum thickness of metal coping of base metal alloy is:
A. 0.1 mm
B. 0.2 mm
C. 0.3 mm
D. 0.4 mm



The correct answer is B. 0.2 mm.

For gold alloys, the minimum thickness of coping should be: 0.3 mm
For base metal alloys, the minimum thickness of coping should be: 0.2 mm
Minimum thickness of porcelain in metal ceramic restoration should be: 0.7 mm

Which has common role in osteoblast, fibroblast and cementoblast?

 # Which has common role in osteoblast, fibroblast and cementoblast?
A. Osteopontin
B. Osteocalcin
C. Osteogenin
D. Bone Sialoprotein



The correct answer is A. Osteopontin.

Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated sialoprotein that is a prominent component of the mineralized extracellular matrices of bones and teeth. 

Osteopontin (OPN), also known as bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1 or BNSP), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene (secreted phosphoprotein 1). 

Osteopontin is biosynthesized by a variety of tissue types including fibroblasts preosteoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, odontoblasts, some bone marrow cells, hypertrophic chondrocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle myoblasts, endothelial cells and extraosseous (non-bone) cells in the inner ear, brain, kidney, deciduum and placenta. 


In a demographic cycle, if death rate is declining but there is no increase in birth rate, this population is called as:

 # In a demographic cycle, if death rate is declining but there is no increase in birth rate, this population is called as:
A. Early expanding
B. Low stationary
C. High stationary
D. Declining



The correct answer is A. Early expanding.

There is a demographic cycle of 5 stages through which a nation passes.

First stage (High stationary): This stage is characterized by a high birth rate and high death rate which cancel each other and the population remains stationary. 

Second stage (Early expanding): The death rate begins to decline while the birth rate remains unchanged. As the birth rates remain high, the population starts to grow rapidly.

Third stage (Late expanding)- Death rate declines still further and birth rate tends to fall, but population tends to grow as birth rate supersedes the death rates, but rates of population growth decelerates.

Fourth stage (Low stationary)- This stage is characterized by low birth and low death rate with the result that the population becomes stationary. Most industrialized countries have gone through a demographic transition from a high birth and high death rates to low birth and low death rates.

Fifth stage (Declining): Population begins to decline because birth rate is lower than death rate.

What is common to all Staphylococci?

 # What is common to all Staphylococci?
A. All are gram positive
B. Common in nosocomial infections
C. All inhibited by penicillin G
D. All of the above



The correct answer is A. All are gram positive.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae from the order Bacillales. Under the microscope, they appear spherical (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus species are facultative anaerobic organisms (capable of growth both aerobically and anaerobically).

Staphylococcus can cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals through either toxin production or penetration. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, for they can be produced by bacteria growing in improperly stored food items. The most common sialadenitis is caused by staphylococci, as bacterial infections.Staphylococci break down leucine into isovaleric acid, the main odor of foot odor.

The widespread incidence of antibiotic resistance across various strains of S. aureus, or across different species of Staphylococcus has been attributed to horizontal gene transfer of genes encoding antibiotic/metal resistance and virulence. A recent study demonstrated the extent of horizontal gene transfer among Staphylococcus to be much greater than previously expected, and encompasses genes with functions beyond antibiotic resistance and virulence, and beyond genes residing within the mobile genetic elements.

When the denture border is overextended on posterior region, common complaint by the patient is:

   # When the denture border is overextended on posterior region, common complaint by the patient is:
A. Improper retention
B. Difficulty in swallowing 
C. Difficulty in speech
D. Excess salivation



The correct answer is A. Improper retention. 

Persistent gagging can occur due to overextended denture borders especially in the posterior part of maxillary denture and the distolingual part of mandibular denture. Gagging usually produces displacement of the denture.

When the denture border is overextended on distolingual region, difficulty in swallowing occurs. The overextension in the distolingual sulcus should be corrected.

Ref: Nallaswamy


Stages of Tooth Development in a Multirooted Tooth

 Description of modified Moorrees' stages (Moorrees et al., 1963a,b) used to identify tooth developmental stages of multirooted teeth. 





Average vertical length a mandible moves in a chewing cycle is:

  # Average vertical length a mandible moves in a chewing cycle is:
A. 3-5 mm
B. 10-12 mm
C. 16-20 mm
D. 50-60 mm



The correct answer is C. 16-20 mm.

Chewing is highly complex oral motor behavior usually seen in the frontal plane in simple form. No archetypal chewing cycle exists. The means of the dimensions of the chewing cycle are between 16 and 20 mm for vertical movements and between 3 and 5 mm for lateral movements. The duration of the cycle varies from 0.6 to 1 second depending on the type of food. The speed of masticatory movement varies within each cycle, both according to the type of food and among individuals. Speed, duration, and form of the chewing cycle vary with the type of occlusion, kind of food, and presence of dysfunction.

Reference: Wheeler's 10th Edition Page 263

Oblique ridge at the centre of occlusal surface is reduced to the level of:

  # Oblique ridge at the centre of occlusal surface is reduced to the level of:
A. Central groove
B. Marginal ridges
C. Cusp tips
D. All of the above




The correct answer is B. Marginal ridges.

The oblique ridge is a ridge that crosses the occlusal surface obliquely. The union of the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp and the distal ridge of the mesiolingual cusp forms it. This ridge is reduced in height in the center of the occlusal surface, being about on a level with the marginal ridges of the occlusal surface. Sometimes it is crossed by a developmental groove that partially joins the two major fossae by means of its shallow sulcate groove.

Which Premolar develops from five lobes?

  # Which of the following premolars develop from five lobes?
A. Maxillary first premolar
B. Maxillary second premolar
C. Mandibular first premolar
D. Mandibular second premolar



The correct answer is D. Mandibular second premolar.

The mandibular first premolars are developed from four lobes, as were the maxillary premolars. The mandibular second premolars are, in most instances, developed from five lobes, three buccal and two lingual lobes.

Reference: Wheeler's, 10th Edition, Page 151

Parahemophilia is due to deficiency of :

  # Parahemophilia is due to deficiency of :
A. Clotting factor VIII
B. Clotting factor IX
C. Clotting factor V
D. Clotting factor XI


The correct answer is C. Clotting factor V.

Parahemophilia:  a congenital deficiency of factor V in the blood that is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis and abnormally slow clotting time. — called also Owren's disease.

In the anteroposterior bar major connector, the shape of the bars are:

  # In the anteroposterior bar major connector, the shape of the bars are:
A. Anterior bar – flat strap; posterior bar- half oval
B. Anterior bar – half pear shape; posterior bar- half pear shape
C. Anterior bar – half oval; posterior bar- flat strap
D. Anterior bar – flat strap; posterior bar- flat strap



The correct answer is A. Anterior bar – flat strap; posterior bar- half oval.

The anterior component is a flat strap located as far posteriorly as possible to avoid rugae coverage and tongue interference. The anterior border of this strap should be located just posterior to a rugae crest or in the valley between two crests. The posterior strap is thin, a minimum of 8 mm wide, and located
as far posteriorly as possible, yet entirely on the hard palate. It should be located at right angles to midline rather than diagonally.

Posterior palatal component: a strap of 22-gauge thickness, 8 to 10 mm wide (a half-oval form of approximately 6-gauge thickness and width) may also be used.

The space maintainer which is contraindicated in a child suffering from subacute bacterial endocarditis is:

  # The space maintainer which is contraindicated in a child suffering from subacute bacterial endocarditis is:
A. Removable
B. Crown and loop
C. Band and loop
D. Distal shoe



The correct answer is D. Distal shoe.

A distal shoe space maintainer is indicated when the primary 2nd molar is lost before eruption of the permanent 1st molar. 

Distal shoe space maintainer is contraindicated in: 
• Patient with heart diseases 
• Patients with poor oral hygiene 
• Hemophilic patients 



Middle concha of nose are a part of:

 # Middle concha of nose are a part of:
A. Nasal bone
B. Ethmoid
C. Vomer
D. Maxilla


The correct answer is B. Ethmoid.

The nasal conchae are curved bony projections directed downward and medially. 
The 3 conchae are:
 i) Inferior concha: It is an independent bone. 
ii) Middle concha: It is a projection from the medial surface of the ethmoidal labyrinth.
iii) Superior concha: It is also a projection from the medial surface of the ethmoidal labyrinth. This is the smallest concha situated just above the posterior part of middle concha. 

Carboxylation reaction is related to:

 # Carboxylation reaction is related to:
A. Biotin
B. Vitamin B6
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin A



The correct answer is A. Biotin.

Biotin serves as a carrier of CO2 in carboxylation reactions. The reaction catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase, converting pyruvate to oxaloacetate.


Which bone reaches its adult size at birth?

 # Which bone reaches its adult size at birth?
A. Ear ossicles
B. Parietal bone
C. Mastoid process
D. Maxilla



The correct answer is A. Ear ossicles.

The bone that reaches its adult size at birth are ear ossicles. The tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, auditory ossicles and structures of the internal ear are almost fully developed at birth and undergo little change after birth.

Metopic suture fuses at:

 # Metopic suture fuses at:
A. 2.5 years
B. 6 years
C. 18 months
D. 9 months



The correct answer is D. 9 months.

The two frontal bones tend to fuse in the midline via the metopic or frontal suture. The timing of its closure is controversial. Fusion of metopic suture begins anteriorly at the bridge of the nose and progresses posteriorly. One-third of metopic sutures close at 3 months, and nearly 100% by 9 months. Although some may persist into 6 years and may not close until adulthood in up to 10% of patients. A premature fusion of the suture is termed metopic synostosis. This can result in trigonocephaly. It usually disappears by the age of 2 years but may even persist in a few individuals. 

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If access is made in gold crown for endodontic procedure and after completion of procedure

 # If access is made in gold crown for endodontic procedure and after completion of procedure hole is filled with amalgam, which is correct about subsequent possible event?
A.  Amalgam will act as anode to gold  
B. Amalgam will act as cathode to gold
C. Circuit will not be formed
D. All of the above



The correct answer is A. Amalgam will act as anode to gold.

If an amalgam is in direct contact with an adjacent metallic restoration such as a gold crown, the amalgam is the anode in the circuit. This type of electrochemical corrosion is called galvanic corrosion and is associated with the presence of macroscopically different electrode sites.


What happens if gypsum is heated above 700 degree celsius?

 # What happens if gypsum is heated above 700 degree celsius?
A. No by-product
B. Breakdown of CaSO4 which affect gold alloy
C. Breakdown of Na2SO4 which affect gold alloy
D. Gas inclusion porosities

The correct answer is B. Breakdown of CaSO4 which affect gold alloy.

Gypsum-bonded investments are used for casting gold alloys. These can withstand a temperature of 700°C. If gypsum investment is heated about 700°C, decomposition of CaSO4 occurs with emission of SO2 gas. This not only causes shrinkage of the investment but also contaminates the gold castings with the sulphides of the non-noble elements such as silver and copper. So gypsum investments should not be heated above 700°C. 


Undercut desirable for wrought wire clasp:

 # Undercut desirable for wrought wire clasp:
A. 0.02 inches with clasp length 8 mm
B. 0.01 inches with clasp length 8 mm
C. 0.02 inches with clasp length 5 mm
D. 0.01 inches with clasp length 5 mm



The correct answer is A. 0.02 inches with clasp length 8 mm.

• Undercuts on the master cast may be measured with an undercut gauge, such as those provided with the Ney and Jelenko surveyors. 
• The amount of undercut is measured in hundredths of an inch, with the gauges allowing measurements up to 0.03inch. Theoretically the amount of undercut used may vary with the clasp to be used up to a full 0.03 inch. However, undercuts of 0.01 inch are often adequate for retention by cast retainers.
• Tapered wrought-wire retention may safely use up to 0.02 inch without inducing undesirable torque on the abutment tooth, provided the wire retentive arm is long enough (at least 8mm). 
• The use of 0.03inch is rarely, if ever, justified with any clasp. When greater retention is required, such as when abutment teeth remain on only one side of the arch, multiple abutments should be used rather than increasing the retention on any one tooth. 


Vitamin related to coenzyme A:

 # Vitamin related to coenzyme A:
A. Thiamine
B. Riboflavin
C. Cobalamine
D. Pantothenic acid




The correct answer is D. Pantothenic acid.

• Co-enzyme A is an important component of fatty acid synthase complex. The Co-enzyme A is a complex molecule containing B complex vitamin pantothenic acid and a molecule of beta mercaptoethanol amine. 
• The ACP (acyl carrier protein) also contains pantothenic acid. 
• The important CoA derivatives are: - Acetyl CoA - Succinyl CoA - HMG CoA - Acyl CoA. 
• The functions of Pantothenic acid are exerted through CoA (A for acetylation). It is a component of Pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and Thiokinase. Besides the various functions through coenzyme A, pantothenic acid itself is a component of fatty acid synthase complex and is involved in the formation of fatty acids.