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Why is morphine contraindicated in maxillofacial injury or head injury?

 # In patients with maxillofacial injury, narcotics like morphine are contraindicated because:
A. Morphine causes miosis
B. Morphine causes mydriasis
C. Morphine is respiratory irritant
D. Morphine is circulatory depressant


The correct answer is A. Morphine causes miosis.

Miosis masks the neurological signs of cerebral hemorrhage.
  Morphine is a phenanthrene derivative opioid analgesic. It is contraindicated in head injuries due to:
- Retention of carbondioxide leading to increased intracranial pressure
- exaggerated depression of respiration and the potential need to control ventillation of the patient must be considered
- vomitting, miosis (miosis will interrupt in monitoring the eye signs in case of probable head injury in the patients of maxillofacial injury), and altered mental state interfere with assessment of prognosis in patients with head injury

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