Torque in orthodontics refers to:

 # Torque in orthodontics refers to:
a. The change in mesiodistal inclination of teeth
b. The change in labiolingual inclination of teeth
c. The rotation of teeth
d. None of the above

The correct answer is B. The change in labiolingual inclination of teeth.

Torquing is considered as reverse tipping during which there is movement of root only without the movement of the crown. This type of tooth movement is usually used to correct the effects of uncontrolled tipping. 

Orchid Multispeciality Dental Clinic, Damak Jhapa

 Name of Dental Clinic: Orchid Multispeciality Dental Clinic
Address (Full): Province 1, Jhapa Damak-8 
Year of Establishment: 2080
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr. Pawan Singh
CONTACT NUMBER: 9819239757
NMC Number of Dental Surgeon: 17464

Which of the following materials used in orthodontics commonly causes sensitivity?

 # Which of the following materials used in orthodontics commonly causes sensitivity?
A. Steel
B. Ceramic
C. Nickel
D. Plastic

The correct answer is C. Nickel.

Most allergies in orthodontics are related to latex and nickel. Nickel can evoke IgE-mediated (immediate) and cell-mediated (delayed) hypersensitivity reactions. 

Double cantilever spring OR Z-spring


Double cantilever/Z-spring can be used for the labial movement of palatally locked incisors and also for correcting minor rotations of these teeth.

Parts of Z-Spring
a. Square loop
b. Two helices
c. Retentive arm
d. Retentive tag

Helices of Z-spring
There are two helices of small internal diameter.

Squarsh loop: Active arm with squarsh loop is incorporated at the free end of active arm and it helps in preventing soft tissue damage.

Retentive arm: It has a long retentive arm of about 10 to 12 mm length, which gets embedded in acrylic base material.

Retentive tag: Retentive tag of Z-spring is perpendicular to the retentive arm and is of 2 to 3 mm in length.

 Stainless steel wire of 0.5 mm or 23 gauge isn used for the fabrication of Z-spring.
 Pliers used: Universal pliers can be used for the fabrication of Z-spring.
 Z-spring can be designed to more one or two incisor in a labial direction over equal distances.
 The spring is constructed such that it is perpendicular to the palatal surface of the teeth to be moved.
 Z-spring is a supported spring and needs boxing in the wax prior to acrylization. However, the helices are kept free from acrylic so that they can be activated.

Activation of Z-Spring
 For labial movement of incisors, the Z-spring is activated by simultaneously opening both helices by 2 to 3 mm.
 For correction of minor rotations, activation is done by opening only upper helix by 2 to 3 mm.

Z-spring is used for:
a. Labial movement of one or two incisors. It is often used for correction of anterior crossbite occurring due to palatally locked upper incisors.
b. It can also be used for the correction of mild rotation of incisors.

MCQs in Endodontics - Biomechanical Preparation

# The root canal instrument most likely to break during use is a:
A. File
B. Broach
C. Reamers
D. Spreaders

# While root canal biomechanical preparation apical constriction is enlarged to 50 sized instrument. You would like to:
A. Use reverse filling technique
B. Reinstrument with larger instrument 1 mm short of previous preparation
C. Fit a 50 mm cone and condense carefully
D. Fill with 40 sized cone

Dental Implants: Choosing the Right Dental Specialist

Dental implants have revolutionized the field of restorative dentistry, offering patients a reliable and long-lasting solution for missing teeth. When considering dental implants, it is essential to choose the right dental specialist to ensure a successful and comfortable treatment outcome. In this essay, we will explore the various dental specialists involved in the dental implant process and discuss the factors to consider when selecting the most suitable specialist for your implant procedure.

1. Periodontist:
Periodontists specialize in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gum diseases and conditions affecting the supporting structures of teeth. They play a crucial role in dental implant treatment by ensuring the health of the gums and jawbone. Periodontists are skilled in procedures such as bone grafting and gum tissue manipulation, which are often necessary for successful implant placement. If you have periodontal issues or inadequate bone density, consulting a periodontist is essential for evaluating your implant candidacy.

2. Prosthodontist:
Prosthodontists are dental specialists who focus on the restoration and replacement of teeth. They have extensive training in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and placement of dental implants. Prosthodontists are skilled in designing and creating custom-made prostheses, such as implant-supported crowns, bridges, and dentures. Their expertise in restorative dentistry makes them an excellent choice for complex implant cases requiring extensive rehabilitation.

3. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon:
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are dental specialists who specialize in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaw, and face. They possess advanced training in dental implant surgery, including the placement of implants into the jawbone. These specialists are equipped to handle complex cases that require bone grafting, sinus lifts, or other surgical procedures to ensure the success of dental implants. If your implant treatment plan involves extensive surgical interventions, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon may be the ideal choice.

4. General Dentist:
General dentists, although not specialists, can also perform dental implant procedures. They typically have foundational knowledge and experience in restorative dentistry, including implant placement. General dentists are well-suited for straightforward implant cases with sufficient bone volume and healthy gum tissues. However, for complex cases or patients with specific oral health concerns, a referral to a specialist may be recommended.

Factors to Consider When Choosing a Dental Specialist:
a. Experience and Expertise: Look for a specialist who has extensive experience and a proven track record in dental implant procedures. Review their qualifications, training, and any specialized certifications related to implant dentistry.

b. Referrals and Recommendations: Seek recommendations from trusted sources, such as your general dentist, friends, or family members who have undergone successful implant treatments. Their experiences can provide valuable insights into the expertise and quality of care provided by different specialists.

c. Consultation and Communication: Schedule consultations with potential dental specialists to discuss your treatment needs and goals. Pay attention to their ability to communicate clearly, address your concerns, and provide a comprehensive treatment plan.

d. Technology and Facilities: Inquire about the technology and equipment available at the dental practice. State-of-the-art facilities often indicate a commitment to delivering advanced and efficient implant treatments.

e. Patient Comfort and Support: Consider the level of care and support offered by the dental specialist and their team. A comfortable and supportive environment can significantly impact your implant experience.

Choosing the right dental specialist is crucial when considering dental implant treatment. Prosthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, periodontists, and general dentists all play important roles in the implant process. Evaluating their experience, expertise, referrals, communication skills, facilities, and patient support will help you make an informed decision. By selecting the most suitable dental specialist, you can ensure a successful and satisfactory dental implant experience. Remember, each case is unique, and the complexity of your situation will determine the most appropriate specialist to choose. Consulting with multiple specialists and gathering as much information as possible will help you make an informed decision and ultimately achieve a beautiful and functional smile through dental implants. Prioritize your oral health and seek the expertise of a qualified dental professional to guide you through this transformative journey.

Maximizing Patient Satisfaction: Offering Dental Discounts without Revenue Loss

 In the competitive world of dentistry, attracting and retaining patients is crucial for a thriving dental practice. One effective strategy to achieve this is by offering discounts to patients. However, many dentists worry about the potential revenue loss associated with implementing such discounts. In this essay, we will explore several key strategies that dental practices can employ to provide discounts to patients without compromising revenue.

Analyze Treatment Margins:
To offer discounts without affecting revenue, dental practices should first conduct a comprehensive analysis of their treatment margins. By evaluating the profitability of various procedures, dentists can identify areas where discounts can be implemented without significant financial impact. For example, procedures with higher profit margins could be targeted for discount offers.

Implement Strategic Discount Packages:
Instead of offering discounts on individual procedures, dental practices can create bundled treatment packages. These packages can combine several services at a discounted rate, attracting patients while ensuring that the overall revenue remains stable. For instance, a package that includes teeth whitening, dental cleaning, and a comprehensive oral exam could be offered at a reduced price, encouraging patients to opt for multiple services.

Focus on New Patient Acquisition:
Another effective approach to offering discounts without revenue loss is by targeting new patient acquisition. Providing discounts exclusively to new patients allows dental practices to attract a larger customer base without impacting existing patient revenue. Implementing this strategy alongside exceptional patient care and service can turn new patients into loyal, long-term customers.

Leverage Collaborative Partnerships:
Dental practices can establish partnerships with local businesses or dental suppliers to create mutually beneficial discount programs. By partnering with orthodontists, periodontists, or dental laboratories, practices can offer discounted services to their patients without sacrificing revenue. These collaborations not only widen the range of services available to patients but also provide additional exposure and referrals.

Employ Time-Limited Promotions:
Time-limited promotions can create a sense of urgency and encourage patients to take advantage of the offered discounts promptly. By setting clear start and end dates for promotional offers, dental practices can instill a fear of missing out, prompting patients to schedule appointments sooner. This time-bound approach ensures a consistent stream of patients seeking discounted treatments without compromising long-term revenue.

Focus on Value-Added Services:
Rather than solely relying on monetary discounts, dental practices can offer value-added services as incentives. For instance, complimentary teeth whitening kits, oral hygiene education sessions, or preventive care packages can be provided alongside regular treatments. These extra benefits enhance the patient experience and increase perceived value without directly reducing prices.

Enhance Referral Programs:
Referral programs can be an effective way to generate new patients while maintaining revenue levels. By encouraging existing patients to refer friends and family members, dental practices can offer discounts on future treatments as a reward. This approach not only attracts new patients but also increases patient loyalty and retention.

Providing discounts to dental patients does not have to result in a drop in revenue. By employing a strategic approach and implementing the strategies mentioned above, dental practices can offer discounts without compromising their financial stability. Analyzing treatment margins, implementing bundled packages, targeting new patient acquisition, fostering partnerships, using time-limited promotions, focusing on value-added services, and enhancing referral programs are all effective ways to offer discounts while maintaining a thriving dental practice. With careful planning and execution, dental practices can optimize patient satisfaction, attract new clients, and achieve long-term financial success.

Modification of Adam's clasp with distal extension

  In orthodontics, the modification of Adam's clasp with distal extension refers to a technique where the distal end of the Adam's clasp is extended to engage elastics or auxiliary components.

Adam's clasp is a commonly used intraoral auxiliary component in orthodontic treatment. It consists of a rectangular wire arm that extends from the buccal surface of a molar tooth and curves occlusally to engage an undercut on an adjacent tooth. It provides anchorage and stability to the orthodontic appliance or archwire.

The modification of Adam's clasp with distal extension involves extending the clasp arm distally beyond the last tooth involved in the clasp. This extended portion is used to attach elastics, which are commonly used in orthodontics to apply additional forces and aid in tooth movement.

The distal extension of Adam's clasp allows for the placement of elastics from the extended arm to various areas in the mouth, such as hooks on brackets or other auxiliary attachments. The elastics exert the desired force vectors, assisting in achieving the desired tooth movements and occlusal adjustments.

By incorporating the distal extension into the Adam's clasp design, orthodontists can apply forces in different directions to address specific tooth movements, such as closing gaps, correcting malocclusions, or aligning the bite. It provides versatility in treatment mechanics and enhances the precision and control of orthodontic tooth movements.

It's important to note that the modification of Adam's clasp with distal extension is specific to certain orthodontic cases and treatment plans. The decision to utilize this modification is made by the orthodontist based on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

In summary, the modification of Adam's clasp with distal extension in orthodontics involves extending the clasp arm beyond the last tooth to engage elastics. This modification allows for the application of additional forces to achieve specific tooth movements and optimize treatment outcomes.