Important Signs in Clinical Medicine and their Significance : Murphy's Sign, Auspitz's sign, Trousseau's Sign, etc.

Important Signs and their significance
Sign Significance
Nikolsky's sign
➤ Seen in Pemphigus, familial benign chronic pemphigus and recessive form of epidermolysis bullosa
➤ Loss of epithelium due to rubbing resulting in raw, sensitive surface
Auspitz's sign
➤ Seen in Psoriasis
➤ If the deep scales are removed, one or more tiny bleeding points are disclosed
Higoumenaki's sign
➤ Seen in congenital syphilis
➤ Characterized by irregular thickening of sternoclavicular portion of clavicle
Trousseau's sign
➤ Seen in tetany (Hypoparathyroidism)
➤ Trousseau's sign is the appearance of carpal spasm after application of  pressure on the arm by inflation of the sphygmomanometer cuff

Chvostek's sign
➤ Seen in tetany
➤ tapping at the angle of the jaw stimulates the facial nerve and causes twitching of the muscles of the face on the same side 
Battle's sign
➤ Seen in subcondylar fractures and fractures involving base of skull
➤ Characterized by ecchymosis in the post auricular region over the mastoid process
Guiren's sign
➤ Seen in Le-fort I fracture
➤ Seen as ecchymosis near greater palatine foramen
"Hanging drop sign"
 in radiograph
➤ Indicates orbital floor fracture
➤ It is due to herniation of inferior oblique and inferior rectus muscles in to  antrum
➤Best demonstrated in Water's projection
Crowe's sign
(Axillary freckling)
➤ Von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (Elephant man syndrome)
Murphy's sign ➤ Seen in Cholecystitis
Tinel's sign
➤ Used Earlier as an indication of the start of nerve regeneration
➤ It is elicited by percussion over the divided nerve, which results in tingling sensation in the part supplied by the peripheral section

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