Behcet's Syndrome

Behçet’s syndrome is a multisystem disease that predominantly affects young males and is
characterized by multiple superficial, painful “aphthous-like ulcers” in the oral cavity.
However to fulfill the criteria of being Behçet’s syndrome, clinically there should be a presence of an aphthous-like ulcer in the oral cavity along with at least two of the following lesions e.g. skin lesion, eye lesion or genital lesion, etc.

Etiology of Behcet’s syndrome is unknown; however, the disease is believed to be caused by
some immunologic abnormality.

Oral lesions: Aphthous-like ulceration in the oral cavity.

Skin lesions: Erythematous macular, papular, vesicular or pustular lesions in the skin; thrombophlebitis may also sometimes develop.

Eye lesions: Ocular lesions in Behçet’s syndrome include uveitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia and retinitis, etc.

Genital lesions: Ulceration in the genitalia, which looks similar to those of the oral cavity.

Other lesions: Behcet’s syndrome sometimes presents some additional features like neural,
vascular, articular, renal or gastrointestinal lesions of various kinds.

Microscopically the lesions produce similar feature to what is found in a minor aphthous ulcer. However, there can be some additional features like severe vasculitis and vascular damage, etc.

Behçet’s syndrome is treated by systemic steroid therapy.