Behcet's Syndrome

Behçet’s syndrome is a multisystem disease that predominantly affects young males and is
characterized by multiple superficial, painful “aphthous-like ulcers” in the oral cavity.
However to fulfill the criteria of being Behçet’s syndrome, clinically there should be a presence of an aphthous-like ulcer in the oral cavity along with at least two of the following lesions e.g. skin lesion, eye lesion or genital lesion, etc.

ETIOLOGY
Etiology of Behcet’s syndrome is unknown; however, the disease is believed to be caused by
some immunologic abnormality.

CLINICAL FEATURES
Oral lesions: Aphthous-like ulceration in the oral cavity.

Skin lesions: Erythematous macular, papular, vesicular or pustular lesions in the skin; thrombophlebitis may also sometimes develop.

Eye lesions: Ocular lesions in Behçet’s syndrome include uveitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia and retinitis, etc.

Genital lesions: Ulceration in the genitalia, which looks similar to those of the oral cavity.

Other lesions: Behcet’s syndrome sometimes presents some additional features like neural,
vascular, articular, renal or gastrointestinal lesions of various kinds.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Microscopically the lesions produce similar feature to what is found in a minor aphthous ulcer. However, there can be some additional features like severe vasculitis and vascular damage, etc.

TREATMENT
Behçet’s syndrome is treated by systemic steroid therapy.

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