Principal fibers of PDL

# All of these are principal fibers of Periodontal ligament except:
A. Dentoalveolar crest fibers
B. Apical fibers
C. Horizontal fibers
D. Transseptal fibers


The correct answer is:
 D. Transseptal fibers

Principal Fibers of Periodontal Ligament are:
-Alveolar crest,
-horizontal,
-oblique,
-apical, and

-interradicular fiber bundles

Boundaries of Pharynx

# Pharynx extends up to which cervical vertebra? [Nepal Medical Council, Dec 2019]
A. C3
B. C4
C. C5
D. C6


The correct answer is D. C6

Pharynx
The word throat is used for the parts of the neck anterior to the vertebral column, especially the pharynx and the larynx. The pharynx is the part of the digestive system situated posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and posterior to the larynx. It is therefore divisible into nasal, oral, and laryngeal parts: the (1) nasopharynx, (2) oropharynx, and (3) laryngopharynx. The pharynx extends from the base of the skull down to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (around the C6 vertebral level), where it becomes continuous with the esophagus. Its superior aspect is related to the sphenoid and occipital bones and the posterior aspect to the prevertebral fascia and muscles as well as the upper six cervical vertebrae. The pharynx is a fibromuscular tube lined by mucous membrane.


Extension of Pharynx

# Pharynx extends up to which cervical vertebra? [Nepal Medical Council, Dec 2019]
A. C3
B. C4
C. C5
D. C6