Pontic recommended in mandibular anterior areas

# A pontic recommended in mandibular anterior areas with extensive ridge resorption:
A. Modified ridge lap
B. Modified ridge lap with no embrasures
C. Sanitary pontic
D. Bullet pontic


The correct answer is B. Modified ridge lap with no embrasures.

In the mandibular anterior region when there is minimal bone loss (and esthetics are involved), modified ridge lap is the preferable design; when there is extensive bone loss modified ridge lap with no embrasures is the preferable design. 

The pontic recommended for posterior maxillary area

# The pontic recommended for posterior maxillary area:
A. Saddle type
B. Sanitary type
C. Modified ridge lap
D. Bullet


The correct answer is: C. Modified ridge lap.

- Modified ridge lap is used when both aesthetics and function are of concern. 

- It is used in maxillary posterior region and mandibular anterior region. 

- Conical pontic is also called egg pontic. 

Excessive temperatures during acrylic processing

# Excessive temperatures during acrylic processing may result in:
A. Discoloration of acrylic
B. Excessive shrinkage
C. Excessive expansion
D. Evaporation of acrylic monomer



The correct answer is D. Evaporation of acrylic monomer.

Excessive temperature during the acrylic processing will make the monomer boil, causing it to evaporate, creating porosities.

Porosities created by monomer evaporation will make the acrylic denture base weaker in both its chemical composition and physical durability. 

The end result is a poorly fabricated denture with voids and an inaccurate fit.

Which tooth has maximum root surface area?

# Which tooth has maximum root surface area?
A. Maxillary first molar
B. Mandibular first molar
C. Maxillary canines
D. Mandibular central incisors


The correct answer is A. Maxillary first molar 

- Maxillary first molar has maximum root surface area (433 sq. mm) followed by mandibular first molar (431 sq. mm).

- Among posterior teeth, mandibular first premolars have least root surface area. (180 sq. mm)

- Among anterior teeth, maxillary canines have maximum root surface area. (273 sq. mm)

- Mandibular central incisor has the least root surface area of all teeth. (154 sq. mm)

Ratio of the periodontal root surface area

# Ratio of the periodontal root surface area of the abutment teeth and the teeth to be replaced should be at least:
A. 1:1
B. 2:1
C. 1:2
D. 1:4


The correct answer is A. 1:1

According to Ante's law,  "Periodontal surface area of abutment teeth should be at least equal to the teeth replaced."

Ideal ratio is 2:1

Reference points in endodontics in posterior teeth

# Reference points in endodontics in posterior teeth are:
A. Buccal and lingual surfaces
B. Pits
C. Cusp tips
D. Marginal ridges


The correct answer is C. Cusp tips.

Gross occlusal reduction should be done on any decayed or filled posterior tooth undergoing root canal therapy.

This reduction should be done before rubber dam placement to check occlusal clearance in all excursive movements. It should be done before the first endodontic treatment, rather than after, in order not to disturb cuspal reference points used to establish proper length of the tooth.

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Palatal root of maxillary first molar is curved:

# Palatal root of maxillary first molar is curved:
A. Mesially
B. Buccally
C. Lingually
D. Distally


The correct answer is B. Buccally.

Palatal root of upper first molar is often curved buccally at apical third. It has the largest  diameter and offers easiest access of all the three roots.

Root canal of maxillary first molar difficult for instrumentation

# Root canal of maxillary first molar difficult for instrumentation is:
A. Mesiobuccal
B. Distobuccal
C. Distolingual
D. Mesiolingual


The correct answer is A. Mesiobuccal.

Mesiobuccal root has greatest distal curvature and is narrowest of all the three roots. It is flattened in mesiodistal direction. Sometimes, it contains a fourth canal. 


Conditioning for GIC restoration

# In a cavity to be restored with GIC, it should be conditioned with:
A. Water
B. Polyacrylic acid
C. Phosphoric acid
D. Hydrochloric  acid


The correct answer is: B. Polyacrylic acid.

-Following completion of any cavity, there will be a smear layer left on the surface and floor.
- To remove this smear layer, 10% polyacrylic acid is applied and allowed to remain in place for 10 seconds.

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Endodontic Failure in Maxillary First Molar

# Most  common cause of endodontic failures in maxillary first molar is:
A. Missed fourth canal
B. Vertical root fracture
C. Periodontal involvement of pulpal lesion
D. None of the above


- It's a standard to mention now that's maxillary first molar has fourth canal, the MB2 in 54% of cases.

- The mandibular first molar is the tooth which needs RCT most commonly, but it's the maxillary first molar which has the most number of failed RCT.



Pulp Polyp

# A pulp polyp is usually found in:
A. Young teeth with chronic open pulpitis
B. Young teeth with apical abscess
C. Young teeth with acute pulpitis
D. Young teeth with periapical infection


Pulp polyp is a chronic hyperplastic open pulpitis found most commonly in deciduous molars and permanent first molar. It is highly vascularized. Complete endodontic treatment is to be provided if root formation is completed. 

Radiopaque agent in dental composites

# What is added to increase radiopacity in composites?
A. Aluminium oxide
B. Ferric chloride
C. Boron oxide
D. Calcium sulphate


The correct answer is A. Aluminium Oxide.

Filler composition in composites are often modified with other ions to produce desirable changes in properties.
Barium, zinc, boron, zirconium, yttrium ions have been used to produce radiopacity in the filler particles.

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Highest incidence of pulp necrosis

# Highest incidence of pulp necrosis is associated with?
A. Class V Preparation on root surface
B. Inlay preparation
C. Partial veneer preparation
D. Full crown preparation


The correct answer is D. Full crown preparation.

The most intense level of frictional heat is generated with a large diamond stone when teth are prepared for a full crown. 

Least invasive Dental treatment

# Least invasive technique for treatment of white spots on enamel?
A. Microabrasion
B. Night guard bleaching
C. Vital bleaching
D. Caries infiltrate


The correct answer is D. Caries infiltrate.

- The earliest carious lesion is termed a 'white spot' that can be active or inactive. These can be effectively treated with least invasive technique called 'Caries infiltrate'. The etching is done with HF followed by infiltration of low viscosity/high flow resins. These are mainly used in interproximal areas after removal of orthodontic bands.
- Microabrasion should be considered the first line of treatment for removing intrinsic enamel stains before more aggressive restorative options are considered. It is used for removal of fluorosis , localized hypoplasia, prosthodontic demineralization and white/brown dysmineralization. 

Retention of Dental Composite resins

# Dental composite resin restorations are retained by:
A. Cohesion
B. True bonding
C. Mechanical interlocking
D. Atomic forces


The correct answer is C. Mechanical interlocking.

- Surface irregularities are produced by acid etching enamel with 37% to 50% phosphoric acid.
- The primer flows into these irregularities and resin tags are formed providing mechanical interlocking providing micromechanical bonding.
- The microtags formed are 2 to 5 micrometers in length.
- Bond strength is in the range of 18 to 22 MPa.
- Composites increase resistance form by bonding and strengthening tooth structure.

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Fish net pattern in Pemphigus Vulgaris

# Fish Net pattern in pemphigus vulgaris is seen in which of the following tests?
a) Direct immunofluorescence
b) Tzanck smear
c) FNAC
d) Histopathology


The correct answer is A. Direct immunofluorescence.

Pemphigus vulgaris causes intraepithelial bullae formation and results in loss of cohesiveness or acantholysis. Due to this, clumps of epithelial cells are found lying free in the vesicular space, known as Tzanck cells. These changes are seen in cytological smears also known as the Tzanck smear or Tzanck test. The fluid in most vesicles has scarce inflammatory cell infiltration.

Direct Immunofluorescence predominantly demonstrates the presence of IgG in combination with IgM, IgA, C3. Direct Immunofluorescence reveals a typical fish net pattern or chicken wire pattern of IgG antibodies against desmoglein 1 or 3 even in the perilesional skin.

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Elevators on Exodontia

# Most of the elevators used in exodontias work on the principle of:
A. Class I lever
B. Class II lever
C. Class III lever
D. Wheel and axle



The correct answer is A. Class I lever

Most of the elevators used are class I or simple levers. The fulcrum (alveolar bone) is located between the applied force (hand of the operators) and the load or resistance (tooth).
Effort arm (distance between the fulcrum and the force applied) should be greater than resistance arm (distance between the fulcrum and the load or resistance i.e. Tooth).

Rh hump is seen in:

# Rh hump is seen in which portion of a tooth?
A. Cementum
B. Enamel
C. Dentin
D. Alveolar bone


The correct answer is B. Enamel.

In Erythroblastosis fetalis, there is deposition of bilirubin pigment in the enamel and dentin of developing teeth giving them a green, brown or blue hue.

In some cases, enamel hypoplasia involving the incisal edges of anterior teeth and middle third of deciduous cuspid and first molar may be seen resulting in a characteristic ring like defect known as 'Rh hump'.

No treatment for tooth pigmentation is necessary since it affects the deciduous teeth and presents only a temporary cosmetic problem.

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Interstitial pneumonia is caused by:

# Interstitial pneumonia is caused by:
A. Virus and Rickettsia
B. Fungus and bacteria
C. Rickettsia and bacteria
D. Virus and bacteria


The correct answer is A. Virus and Rickettsia.

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Osteotome vs Chisel

# Osteotomes differ from chisel in that they are:
A. Monobevelled
B. Bibevelled
C. Tetrabevelled
D. Not contain any bevels



The correct answer is B. Bibevelled. 

Chisel: Chisel are unibevelled instruments for cutting bone. The edge of the working tip has bevel on one side. The working edge is sharp and is flat. To plane bone, the bevel is kept facing away from the bone. 

Osteotome: Is similar to chisel, but the edge of the working tip is bibevelled. It splits bone rather than cut or chip the bone as with chisel. 




Pathology of Blood Cells - General Pathology MCQs


# Which of the following is a nutritional deficiency anemia?
A. Aplastic anemia
B. Sickle cell anemia
C. Spherocytosis 
D. Megaloblastic anemia

# Megaloblastic anemia is related to:
A. Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency
B. Iron deficiency
C. Vitamin C deficiency
D. Vitamin K deficiency

# Most common cause of megaloblastic anemia is:
A. Lack of folic acid in diet
B. Inability to absorb vit B12
C. Iron deficiency in the diet
D. Chronic blood loss

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