CORONA VIRUS LIVE DATA:

PROSTHODONTICS PAST QUESTIONS- AUGUST 2013 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LD 675]                                      AUGUST 2013                              Sub. Code:
4183 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE
Q .P .Code: 544183
Time: 180 Minutes                                                        Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                        (2x10=20)

1. Define centric relation. Discuss the different types of centric relation procedure.
2. Discuss the method of preparation to receive a jacket crown in central incisor (PORCELAIN).

II. Write Notes on:                                                                   (10x5=50)
1.  survey line and its uses
2.  Zirconia porcelain
3.  Anatomic teeth
4.  Kennedy class two design-Maxillary
5.  Gingival Fluid control
6.  Impression Techniques in removable partial dentures
7.  Root form implants
8.  Immediate dentures
9.  Selective pressure impression technique
10. Arcon articulators
*****


PROSTHODONTICS PAST QUESTIONS FEBRUARY 2013 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LC 675]                                   FEBRUARY 2013                           Sub. Code: 4183
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE
Q .P .Code: 544183
Time: 180 Minutes                                                        Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                        (2x10=20)
1. What are jaw relation? Discuss the biological significance of following during complete denture
preparation:
2. Discuss in detail the fixed partial denture failures.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                   (10x5=50)
1. Neutral zone.
2. Hanau’s quint.
3. Tissue conditioners.
4. Retromolar pad.
5. Lingulaized occlusion.
6. Bar clasp.
7. Osseo integration.
8. Selective pressure impression technique.
9. Combination syndrome.
10. Arcon articulators.
*******


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PROSTHODONTICS PAST QUESTIONS - AUGUST 2012 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LB 675]                                       AUGUST 2012                              Sub. Code:
4183 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE
Q .P .Code: 544183
Time : 180 Minutes                                                                  Maximum : 100
marks Answer ALL questions in the same order.
I. Elaborate on:         (2*20=40)                                                               

1. Name the various types of bridges Diagramatically name the parts of a bridge classify the
retainers. Discuss in detail about Radicular retainers.                                           
2. Define “PATH OF INSERTION” and “PATH OF REMOVAL” in a Removable cast partial denture. Discuss  the factors affecting the same and the role Played by the surveyor.                           

II. Write Notes on: (12*5=60)
1. Neutral zone.                                                                         
2. Dentogenic concept.                                                           
3. Significance of rest position of the mandible.                       
4. Selective pressure impression.                                               
5. Selective Grinding.                                                         
6. Gingival Retraction.                                                               
7. Relining & Rebasing.                                                           
8. Altered cast technique.                                                     
9. Richmond crown.                                                                 
10. Implant denture.                                                                 
11. Needle’s chew in technique.                                               
12. Denture Stomatitis.                                                             
*******



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PAST BDS EXAM PAPERS - PROSTHODONTICS Past Questions

In this page you can find important real exam papers asked in various board examinations.
CLICK on the Year and Month to view the Question paper.

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2012 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2013 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE


# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2013 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2014 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE


# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2014 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2015 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2015 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2016 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2016 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2018 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER – V PROSTHODONTICS AND CROWN AND BRIDGE

ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY - FEBRUARY 2018 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LM 674]                               FEBRUARY 2018              Sub. Code: 4222
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Final Year Paper VI - Modified Regulation III and Final Year Paper VII - New Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VII – ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Q.P Code: 544222
Time: Three Hours                                                              Maximum : 70 Marks
Answer All questions in the same order
Draw suitable diagrams wherever necessary
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                    (2 x 10 = 20)

1. Enumerate the causes of intra operative and post extraction haemorrhage. Write in detail the
management of intraoperative haemorrhage.

2. Define and classify ankylosis of Temporomandibular joint. Describe the etiology, clinical and
radiological features and management of unilateral bony ankylosis in a 10-year-old child.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                                (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis.
2.   Marsupialization.
3.   TNM classification.
4.   Methods of fixation of jaw fractures.
5.   Etiology, clinical features and management of Pterygomandibular space infection.
6.   Composition of  local anesthesia.
7.   Hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
8.   Oral manifestations of HIV.
9.   Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy.
10.   What are the types of Biopsy? Add a note on FNAC.
*******



ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY AUGUST 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LL 674]                                    AUGUST 2017                Sub. Code: 4222
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Final Year Paper VI - Modified Regulation III and Final Year Paper VII - New Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VII – ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Q.P Code: 544222
Time: Three Hours                                                              Maximum : 70 Marks
Answer All questions in the same order Draw suitable diagrams wherever necessary
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                   (2 x 10 = 20)

1.  Define TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA. Discuss in detail about causes, clinical features and
medical/surgical management of the trigeminal neuralgia.

2.  Discuss surgical anatomy of maxillary sinus. Elaborate on various methods of closure of oro
antral fistula.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                                (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Pell and Gregory classification of impacted lower third molar.
2.   Posterior superior Alveolar nerve block.
3.   Tracheostomy.
4.   Marsupialisation.
5.   TNM classification.
6.   Gilley’s temporal approach.
7.   Pre anaesthetic medication.
8.   Dry socket.
9.   Pleomorphic adenoma.
10.   Ludwig’s Angina.
*******


ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY - FEBRUARY 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LK 674]                                FEBRUARY 2017              Sub. Code: 4222

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Final Year Paper VI - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VII - New Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VII – ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Q.P Code: 544222

Time: Three Hours                                                              Maximum : 70 Marks
Answer All questions in the same order Draw suitable diagrams wherever necessary
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                   (2 x 10 = 20)

1. Define and classify ankylosis. Describe in detail about the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical
features, radiographic features and surgical management of bilateral ankylosis.

2. Classify fracture mandible. Discuss in detail the etiology, clinical and radiological features
and management of # of the angle of the mandible.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                               (10 x 5 = 50)
1.   Alveolar osteitis.
2.   Oro antral fistula.
3.   War lines.
4.   CSF rhinorrhea.
5.   Bi-rotational Insertion technique.
6.   Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic.
7.   Lingual split technique.
8.   Moist heat sterilization.
9.   Kazanjian procedure.
10.   Tic doulereaux.
*******



PAST BDS EXAM PAPERS - ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY PAST QUESTIONS

In this page you can find important real exam papers asked in various board examinations.
CLICK on the Year and Month to view the Question paper.

# CLICK TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2016 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAST QUESTIONS

# CLICK TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAST QUESTIONS

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAST QUESTIONS

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2018 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAST QUESTIONS

ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY - AUGUST 2016 - FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LJ 674]                                   AUGUST 2016                 Sub. Code: 4222

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Final Year Paper VI - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VII - New  Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VII – ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Q.P Code: 544222

Time: Three Hours                                                              Maximum : 70 Marks
Answer All questions in the same order Draw suitable diagrams wherever necessary
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                   (2 x 10 = 20)

1. Define cyst. Classify odontogenic cyst of jaws. Write in  detail clinical features, radiographic
features and management of odontogenic keratocyst.

2. Classify mandibular fractures. Describe in detail signs symptoms, radiological features and
management of bilateral condylar fracture.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                               (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Lefort I fracture and management.
2.   Kaban’s protocol.
3.   Composition of carnoy's solution and its use.
4.   Boundaries of canine space and its contents.
5.   Various extraoral approaches to the temporomandibular joint.
6.   Kelsey fry’s technique.
7.   Garres Osteomyelitis.
8.   Genioplasty.
9.   Anterior superior alveolar nerve block.
10.   Ashley’s flap.

*******





PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY - FEBRUARY 2018 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LM 661]                               FEBRUARY 2018              Sub. Code: 4223

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Third Year Paper IV - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VIII - New  Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VIII – PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY
Q.P Code: 544223
Time: 180 Minutes                                                               Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                                  (2 x 10 = 20)

1.   Discuss the various caries activity and susceptibility test used in dental practice.

2.   Define  dental  auxiliaries.  Discuss  the  functions  of  various  non operating dental
auxiliaries in oral health promotion.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                               (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Describe the difference between a individual and public health practice.
2.   Describe the various principles of primary health care approach.
3.   Describe the various uses of epidemiology.
4.   Discuss the importance of normal distribution.
5.   Discuss the various approaches for tobacco cessation practices.
6.   Discuss the basis for third party pre payment plans in dental finance.
7.   Describe the method and criteria for scoring Plaque Index.
8.   Describe the various works of World Health Organization.
9.   Discuss the role of caries vaccines in preventive dentistry.
10.   Discuss the various concepts of causation of diseases.
*******

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PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY - AUGUST 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LL 661]                                    AUGUST 2017                 Sub. Code: 4223

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Third Year Paper IV - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VIII - New Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VIII – PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY
Q.P Code: 544223
Time: 180 Minutes                                                               Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                                   (2 x 10 = 20)

1.   Define Health Education. Enumerate various methods of Health Education aids.

2.   Describe in detail the various modes of Finance in dental care delivery.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                                (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Write a brief note on the historical studies on artificial water fluoridation.
2.   Enumerate the indications of  pit and fissure sealants. Enumerate the various steps in the
disposal of hospital waste.
3.   Describe in detail the various concepts of disease.
4.   Enumerate the various modes of interventions of primary prevention of dental caries.
5.   OHI - S Index.
6.   Enumerate the various principles of ethics.
7.   Describe the Antiplaque mechanism of action of chlorhexidine mouthwash.
8.   Defluoridation.
9.   Describe the various methods of dispersion in biostatistics.
10.   Enumerate the various types of smokeless tobacco products.
*******

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PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY - FEBRUARY 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LK 661]                                FEBRUARY 2017              Sub. Code: 4223

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
(Common to Third Year Paper IV - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VIII - New  Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VIII – PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY
Q.P Code: 544223
Time: 180 Minutes                                                               Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                                  (2 x 10 = 20)

1.   Define Potable water. Enumerate various methods of water purification.  Write in detail about
biological water purification.

2.   Define planning. Enumerate the steps in planning.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                               (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Behaviour learning theory.
2.   Differentiate between Propaganda and health education.
3.   ASKOV.
4.   Comprehensive dental care.
5.   Community water fluoridation.
6.   Cluster sampling.
7.   Sampling error.
8.   Recommended dietary allowance.
9.   ART.
10.   Biomedical waste management.

*******



PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY - AUGUST 2016 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM

[LJ 661]                                                    AUGUST 2016                                          Sub. Code: 4223

                                                FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM 
(Common to Third Year Paper IV - Modified Regulation III Candidates and Final Year Paper VIII  New  Modified Regulation Candidates)

PAPER VIII – PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY
Q.P Code: 544223
Time: 180 Minutes                                                                   Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                                  (2 x 10 = 20)

1.   Mention the various methods of water purification. Write in detail about rapid sand filter
method.

2.   Define   and   classify   epidemiology.   Describe   in   detail   about descriptive
epidemiology.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                                (10 x 5 = 50)

1.   Barriers of communication.
2.   Comprehensive dental care.
3.   Types of biomedical waste.
4.   Measures of dispersion.
5.   Indian Dental Association.
6.   Mechanical plaque control.
7.   Pit and fissure sealant.
8.   Cohort.
9.   Defluoridation methods.
10.   Epidemiological triad.

*******



PAST BDS Exam PAPERS - PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY PAST QUESTIONS

In this page you can find important real exam papers asked in various board examinations.
CLICK on the Year and Month to view the Question paper.

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2016  FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2017  FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD AUGUST 2017 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER

# CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FEBRUARY 2018 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM PAPER


Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal at high doses

# Some antibiotics are bacteriostatic in nature but bactericidal in high doses, such as:
a- erythromycin
b- amoxycillin
c- tetracycline
d- metronidazole
e- cephalosporin


The correct answer is A. Erythromycin.

Witch Chin is seen due to:

# “Witch Chin” is a postoperative complication that occurs when a mucoperiosteal flap is raised in the symphyseal area because of:
A.  injury to the orbicularis oris
B.  detachment of mentalis muscle
C.  incisive nerve damage
D.  periosteal striping
E.  detachment of the platysma muscle


The correct answer is B. Detachment of mentalis muscle.

Blue black pigmentation of gingiva

# Blue black pigmentation of gingiva is seen with pre existing toxicity of:
A. Bismuth
B. Lead
C. Arsenic
D. Mercury


The correct answer is A. Bismuth

Bismuth pigmentation in the oral cavity usually appears as a narrow, bluish black 
discoloration of the gingival margin in areas of preexisting gingival inflammation.

Periodontal pocket

# A periodontal pocket of 8mm deep having the junctional epithelium coronal to the CEJ is:
A. An infrabony pocket
B. A pseudopocket
C. A true periodontal pocket
D. A furcation involvement


The correct answer is B. A pseudopocket

- Pseudopocket/ gingival pocket/relative or false pocket is formed by gingival enlargement without destruction of underlying periodontal tissues

- True/absolute /periodontal pocket is formed by destruction of supporting periodontal tissues and attachment loss.
 
- Suprabony/supracrestal/Supraalveolar pocket is formed when bottom of pocket is coronal to underlying alveolar bone

- Infrabony/intrabony/subcrestal /intra-alveolar is formed where bottom of pocket is apical to level to adjacent alveolar bone.

MCQs on Nerve Supply of Head and Neck


# All of the following are true of upper eyelid except:
A. Muscles which close the eyelid are supplied by the facial nerve
B. Muscles which open the eyelid are supplied by the branch of trigeminal nerve
C. Sensory supply is by the fifth cranial nerve
D. Blood supply is by the lacrimal and ophthalmic arteries

# Ptosis may occur due to damage to:
A. Trochlear nerve
B. Occulomotor
C. Trigeminal nerve
D. Superior oblique muscle


# Paralysis of upper eyelid is due to paralysis of:
A. III
B. IV
C. V
D. VII

Xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by:

# Xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by:
A. Autosomal dominant inheritance
B. Inability to repair sunlight induced damage to DNA
C. Irregular accumulation of melanin in the basal cell layer
D. Acanthosis of epithelium with elongation of rete pegs


The correct answer is B. Inability to repair sunlight induced damage to DNA

Xeroderma Pigmentosum
- Inherited disorder involving defective DNA repair genes.
- Increased risk for the development of cancers of the skin when exposed to the UV rays.
- UV light causes crosslinking of pyrimidine residues, thus preventing normal DNA replication.
- Such DNA damage is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Several proteins and genes are involved in NER, and an inherited loss of any one can give rise to xeroderma pigmentosum.


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Most common form of reversible cell injury is:

# The earliest and most common form of reversible cell injury is:
A. Cloudy swelling
B. Fatty degeneration
C. Hydropic changes
D. Necrosis


The correct answer is A. Cloudy swelling.

- Reversible cellular changes, cellular swelling, or fatty degeneration (cloudy) are the forms of reversible cell injury.

- Necrosis and apoptosis represent irreversible cell injury. 

Most reactive free radical is:

# Out of the various free radical species, the following radical is most reactive:
A. Superoxide (O2-)
B. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
C. Hydroxyl (OH-)
D. Nitric oxide (NO)



The correct answer is C. Hydroxyl Ion (OH-)
Important mechanisms of cell injury are by damage to DNA, proteins, lipid membranes, and circulating lipids (LDL) by peroxidation caused by oxygen-derived free radicals- superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydroxyl ion is the most reactive.

Koch postulates were modified for periodontitis by:

# Koch postulates were modified for periodontitis by
(A). Socransky
(B). Glickman
(C). Carranza
(D). Orban



The correct answer is: A. Socransky

Why is dental treatment expensive?

You must have gaped when you first time heard your dentist's fee for a single appointment if you live in North America, Europe or Australia. Although, dentistry is much cheaper in South Asia and other parts of the world not mentioned above, dentists make a good income and their earning rises over years as they gain more clinical experience. But, you may be thinking it is not justified that some dentists charge thousands of dollars for the work of an hour or two. Let's see some of the possible causes why dental treatment is so expensive.

A. Dentistry is not only about knowledge
Dentists gain their expertise in dentistry after long years of study, clinical practice and experience which really has no shortcuts. Knowing the thing is not enough, dentists have to visualise and do the procedures in the same ideal way everytime they do something. Precision and manual dexterity is something that develops after years of practice and an inquisitive mind. If  you don't regard your teeth precious and would not bother if they have to be extracted after some slipshod work by a careless dentist, then you can google search for "cheapest dentist in the town", "cheapest dental clinic", "Dental treatment at minimum price" or something similar. But, if you would like to have quality treatment and value your teeth as much as your life, you must seek references from someone who has had a good dental experience and not to choose your dentist solely based upon your financial condition.

B. Dentistry is a one-to-one patient care
The most experienced dentist in the world and the best dentist in the world also can treat only one patient at a time. Dentistry is not only based on medications and counseling, it involves some procedures which take time that nobody can predict accurately. A seemingly easy tooth extraction may take hours following crown fracture and a patient appearing healthy may go into syncope after injecting the local anesthetic. Some weeping canals take more than five or six visits to become asymptomatic and ready for obturation. Even after the dentist becomes very experienced, things take time, healing takes time. It is said that time is the most precious thing in the world which nobody can buy. But, we are selling our time everyday for some price. Some for very low price, some for reasonable prices and some are getting highly paid for their time. And, it is quite understandable that a good dentist must charge higher.


C. A dentist is as good as his instruments and materials
Dental materials have evolved over years and require a lot of research for their improvement. Their advances in the properties of materials and quality of dental treatment they provide gest reflected on the charge the patient has to pay for some procedure. Owning a clinic requires a lot of capital which would have made a lot of profit were it invested elsewhere. We must not neglect the opportunity cost of the capital as well as the dentist working on your mouth.

D. People have got dental problems, quite a lot, and a single dentist cannot solve them all
Imagine that one day all the people in the world with dental caries decided to have their cavity restored. Dental clinics will get overcrowded. Nobody could get quality treatment. Hasty works done result in more dire circumstances in the future. To prevent this, some dentists gradually increase their fees over the years just to that extent that they are not overburdened by the patients. However experienced a dentist may be, he or she cannot examine and treat more than 20 patients in the long run every single day. After few years of clinical practice, dentists develop back pain and may have to retire professionally due to physical difficulties. Keeping all these things in mind, they charge higher to compensate for that loss. 

E. People are ready to pay anything for pain and fear
Dental pain is one of the most severe types of pain. Periodontal and other painless problems in oral cavity are neglected until the carious process reaches the pulp and the patient goes to the dental clinic jumping with pain. They want immediate relief and are ready to pay any price for it. But, they cannot wait for the appointment date. Because pain and fear are the largest industries in the world exploited by the multinational corporations. The cost of dental treatments could be reduced if preventive, rather than curative approach is done towards oral health.

F. Dentistry can always be done better
There are a lot of ways a dentist can improve. However good the dental work may be there is always some room for improvement. As they have reached certain level of confidence in their work and whenever they feel that they could charge higher without hurting the patients' sentiments and mutual benefits, dentists mark - up their charges.

These all could be the reasons some dentists make a lot of money and some struggle to get a job. What are the reasons do you think that some dentists charge higher and make a lot of money? Do comment below.

Bilateral Mandibular Fracture

# Following bilateral mandibular fracture in the canine region, the following muscles will tend to pull the mandible back:
A. Genioglossus and anterior belly of digastric
B. Genioglossus and mylohyoid
C. Genioglossus and thyrohyoid
D. Genioglossus and masseter


The correct answer is A. Genioglossus and anterior belly of digastric

- Symphysis fracture displacement result from action of mylohyoid muscle resulting from imbalance of action of museles attached to genial tubercles on either side.
- Bilateral fracture in canine region when run obliquely forward muscles acting on it are geniohyoid and genioglossus and anterior belly of digastric muscles.
- Lateral pterygoid muscles inserted into medial fossa on anterior aspect of condyle.
- In condylar fracture head is displaced anteriorly and medially

#Recurrent vesicles which are distributed along the sensory nerve trunk

# The Lesion which is erythematous and with recurrent vesicles that are distributed along the sensory nerve trunk is?
(A). Herpes Zoster
(B). Erythema Multiforme
(C). Recurrent Aphthous
(D). Herpes Gingivostomatitis





The correct answer is A. Herpes Zoster.

VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS INFECTIONS
HERPES-ZOSTER (SHINGLES)

Herpes Zoster is a recurrent regional infection caused by the Herpes Zoster virus and is characterized by vesicular eruptions over the skin and mucous membrane in a distinctively unilateral pattern.

Pathogenesis
After producing chickenpox, the V-Z virus remains dormant in the trigeminal ganglion for decades. The virus may become reactivated following stress, trauma, malnutrition and immune suppression, etc.

Clinical Features
The first branch of the trigeminal nerve is most commonly affected and the disease beside affecting the first branch, may also involve the following other branches like:
- Nasociliary nerve-Causing herpetic Keratitis
 Ciliary nerve- Causing Argyll Robertson pupil.
-Facial nerve- Causing Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

- After the prodromal phase of intense pain, the disease produces clusters of vesicles over the skin and oral mucosa; which characteristically develop on one side of the face up to the midline.

- The lesion usually develops and spreads along the distribution of the sensory nerve unilaterally on one side of the face, while the other side of the face remains completely free of symptoms.

- Within the oral cavity the vesicles also develop unilaterally over the buccal mucosa, soft palate and tongue, etc. and cause stinging pain, paresthesia and severe stomatitis.

- In due course of time the fragile vesicular lesions of the skin and the oral mucosa rupture and they leave painful, 'crateriform' ulcers. 

Histopathology
-  Herpes-zoster is histologically characterized by swelling of the infected epithelial cell cytoplasms due to intracellular edema (ballooning degeneration).

Clinical: The disease is nearly always diagnosed on the basis of its very characteristic clinical findings, e.g.
- Unilateral distribution of the lesion. 
- Early severe pain and paresthesia.
- Facial rash accompanying the stomatitis.

Serology: The disease is diagnosed by the detection of virus-specific antibodies in the serum.

Cytologic smear: Cytologic smears prepared from the vesicular fluid reveal inclusion bodies and ballooning degeneration of the infected cell.

Culture: Tissue culture using vesicular contents produces change in the culture cells which could be correlated with the clinical findings found in the primary infection.

Immunofluorescence: HZV specific antibodies are labeled with a fluorescent dye and seen microscopically.

Treatment
Aniviral drugs such as acyclovir is given along with antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. 

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