Horner's Syndrome - Mnemonics @ Horny PAMELa

The features of Horner's Syndrome can be memorized using the mnemonic: Horny PAMELa.

P- Ptosis  (Drooping of the upper eyelid)

A- Anhydrosis : Loss of Sweating on affected side of the face

M – Miosis : Constriction of Pupil

E – Enophthalmos : Retraction of the Eyeball

L – Loss of Ciliospinal Reflex, i.e. Pinching the skin on the nape of neck does not produce dilatation of the pupil

Benefits of Keeping Healthy Teeth and Oral Cavity

Most people realize today that teeth are integral part of esthetics and are paramount for an appealing appearance. But, having healthy teeth and oral cavity has more perks for you you might not have thought of. Let's see some of them

1. First thing that shows up whenever you open your mouth
We are social animal and we communicate with each other. Communication is the gateway to build friendships, relationships, business partnerships, and every kind of other interpersonal relationships you can think of. What will be the impact when your first impression is not the best ? Nice white well aligned teeth not only impresses and engages your listener, it will also improve your self confidence and cheerfulness.

2. The organ we use every day, Thousands of times
Not only to enjoy our favourite foods, we use our mouth and tongue to express our feelings via spoken words. But, how will it be when you can only half open your mouth because of the toothache that hurts every time you open up your mouth or even drink water? Every food we eat goes through the mouth, what will be the result if it is a reservoir of ongoing infection? That's the reason dentists urge to get your cavities filled, even the most tiny ones. They will never get healed themselves anyway, however long you delay.

3. Bad Breaths / Halitosis ?? Uggh...
Do you hate someone just because they have extremely bad breath ? We'll I have few friends whom I wish I could avoid. Whether they know or don't know about their problem, I have a problem though. Why would anyone tolerate your bad breath caused due to your negligence ?? You can imagine the detrimental effect of bad breath in your relationship with your partner/spouse. Proper treatment can reduce halitosis to almost undetectable levels in most of the cases.

4. We are what we eat
We can enjoy all sorts of foods if we've got a healthy oral cavity and teeth. Proper nutrition makes you healthier and even increase your life span. You need not chop or cook everything if you have got teeth that enables you to eat raw vegetables and fruits directly.

5. A stitch in time saves nine
Prevention is always better and cheaper than cure. Regular checkups and brushing and flossing twice daily as all you need to do to keep your oral cavity in perfect health. Everything rest will be done by your dentist. When things pile up, they get worse, a tooth that could have been saved with simple restoration two months back may need root canal treatment today. A developing malocclusion in your child's mouth that could have been prevented by some removable appliance for few months may need expensive fixed orthodontic treatment for a prolonged time.

You may add some other benefits you can think of if you have great teeth and oral health. Have a nice day. And, don't forget to brush twice daily. :)


Oral Medicine and Radiology Question Paper - BPKIHS 4th Year BDS, VIII Sem, July 2018

Time - 1 Hour 20 minutes
 Total Marks : 60
Maximum Marks - 30
1.  List all the factors controlling X ray beam and elaborate the factors affecting the beam quantity.  (2+3=5)
2. Enumerate four common imaging modalities for TMJ. Discuss transcranial projection in detail. (2+3=5)
3. Describe different Radiographic presentations of Malignancy.  (5)
4. Enumerate receptors used for digital imaging. Highlight the recent advances in digital imaging. (2+3=5)
5. Describe the pathogenesis of Oral submucous fibrosis with applied aspect in therapy. (3+2=5)
6. List the four methods of assessing Professionalism and Ethics in an individual and highlight any one.


Maximum Marks: 30
I. A 20-year-male complains of swelling in lower front region of the jaw. The swelling is insidious in onset and gradually increasing but asymptomatic. The left submandibular lymph node was palpable 1 cm in size mobile and firm. There was a large swelling in the anterior mandible crossing the midline with displacement of teeth.

Q1. Based on above history and clinical findings, give three differential diagnosis with reasons. (3)
Q2. Enlist two radiograph of choice with reasons. (2)

On radiographic examination there is a multilocular radiolucency within the site stated and histopathological section showed multinucleated giant cell within background of proliferating mesenchymal cells. 
Q3. Enumerate other characteristic radiographic features. (3)
Q4. Mention two laboratory investigations with reasons.  (2)
Q5. State the final diagnosis. (1)
Q6. Outline medical managerment. (4)

II. A fifty-year-old female complains of gum swelling for one year. It was associated with mobility and pus discharge. On taking history she had excessive thirst, hunger and increased urination during sleep. 
Q7. State the systemic disease for the case. (1)

On examination she had decreased saliva and multiple periodontal abscess
Q8. Enumerate the causes of dryness of mouth. (2)
Q9. Describe the association between the periodontal disease and the medical condition. (4)

The extraction is planned as the tooth has poor prognosis.
Q10. Describe laboratory diagnostic criteria for the disease. (3)
Q11. Mention the signs and symptoms of medical emergencies in dental office with its management protocol.