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Oxygen Dissociation Curve

# At higher CO2 concentration, oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin will:
A. Move to left
B. Move to right
C. Become irregular
D. Move upwardly


The correct answer is B. Move to right

Right shift of the curve (decreased affinity of Hb for Oxygen) is caused by the following factors:
- High PCO2
- Low blood pH
- High body temperature
- Increased level of 2,3 DPG (Diphosphorylglycerate or biphosphoglycerate)




Pneumotaxic center is present in:

# Pneumotaxic center related to respiration is located in:
A. Crura Cerebri
B. Medulla Oblongata
C. Pons Varoli
D. Parietal lobe


The correct answer is C. Pons varoli. 


Sterilizing Semi critical items

# In reference to the Spaulding Classification System for contaminated items, semi critical items should be reprocessed by:
A. Immersion in a tuberculocidal disinfectant
B. Heat sterilization if the material is heat stable
C. Washing with a chlorhexidine gluconate solution
D. A spray-wipe-spray technique


The correct answer is B. heat sterilization if the material is heat stable.

Semi critical items are defined as instruments that do not penetrate soft tissues or bone but are used inside the mouth and contact the mucosa.

These instruments must be sterilized after every use or must undergo high level disinfection if they are not heat stable.



Best Gloves for Protection

# Which of the following types of gloves should be utilized to provide the best protection during the cleaning of dental operatories?
A. Vinyl
B. Cotton
C. Utility
D. Latex


The correct answer is C. Utility gloves

Utility gloves are designed to provide best protection during cleaning of dental operatories. 
Utility gloves should be used during cleaning the dental operatories. 

Utility gloves are thicker than latex and vinyl gloves. 

These have larger cuffs and are designed to handle wastes more easily. 

Utility gloves have greater tear strength and are more water resistant. 

Physiology MCQs - Endocrinology - Multiple Choice Questions


# If a chemical agent is produced by a cell and if the agent acts on the same cell, the effect is termed as:
A. Endocrine effect
B. Paracrine effect
C. Autocrine effect
D. None of the above

# All of the following are autocoids except:
A. Histamine
B. Eicosanoids
C. Serotonin
D. Insulin

# The following is believed to be a second hormonal messenger in many tissues.
A. Cyclic AMP
B. Prostaglandins
C. Calcium ions
D. Adenyl cyclase

# Drug receptors for steroids are present in the:
A. Nuclear chromatin
B. Cell membrane
C. Cytoplasm
D. Nucleus

Highest number of death due to Corona Virus Infection (COVID-19)

# Most deaths due to COVID-19, an infection due to novel coronavirus has occurred till date (23rd March) in which country?
A. Russia
B. China
C. Italy
D. USA


The correct answer is C. Italy.

No. of Deaths till Date.

Italy  - 5476
China - 3270
Russia - 1
USA -  458

Most Common Neurotransmitter:

# Most common neurotransmitter is:
A. Dopamine
B. GABA
C. Acetylcholine
D. Norepinephrine



The correct answer is : C. Acetylcholine

Types of Cartilage

Hyaline Cartilage
  • Matrix consists of lacunar capsule containing individual chondrocytes.
  • Widely distributed in the body.
  • Surface covered by perichondrium.
  • Type II collagen is found

  • Costal cartilage
  • Articular cartilages of most synovial joints
  • Thyroid, cricoid and arytenoid cartilages, pharyngeal cartilages, parts of nasal septum, epiphyseal plate essential for bone growth
Fibrous Cartilage
  • Also called white cartilage.
  • Type I collagen is found.
  • Perichondrium is absent.
  • Highest tensile force.
  • Calcification may occur with age.

  • It is found in symphysis, Intervertebral discs, public symphysis, articular disc of most of the joints and menisci of knee joint.
Elastic Cartilage
  • Yellow cartilage.
  • This is similar to hyaline cartilage except that elastic fibres are present instead of type II collagen fibres.
  • Calcification does not occur.

  • It is found in auricle.
  • Wall of the medial part of the auditory tube.
  • Epiglottis, corniculate, cuneiform and apical part of the arytenoids cartilages of larynx.

MDS Entrance Exam Syllabus - Nepal Medical Education Commission 2020

(2} MDS (Masters in Dental Surgery)
A. Eligibility:
a. BDS or equivalent from institutions recognized by government of Nepal
b. Registered in Nepal Medical Council
c. Registered in respective medical council of applicant's own country for foreign candidates
d. One year experience
e. Candidate should score minimum of 50% (Pass Marks) in the Entrance Examinations conducted by Medical Education Commission for being eligible to be in the merit list.


B. Exam Format:
a. Single best response type with Multiple choice questions
b. Four options (A, B, C, D)
c. No. of questions - 200
d. Recall:Understanding:Application - 30:50:20
e. Duration - (3 hours including one-time voluntary toilet break)
> To be allowed only after an hour







Prevalence vs incidence

# For a given population, the number of disease cases are divided by the total number of people. Which of the following rates were calculated?
A. Odds ratio
B. Prevalence
C. Incidence
D. Specificity


The prevalence of a condition describes the
proportion of a population who havea cquired a condition.

Prevalence proportion is computed by comparing the total number of people
affected with a condition against the overall
number of people being studied. The result
is usually written as a percentage, fraction,
or by noting the number of known cases per 10,000 people or 100,000 people.

Incidence describes the number of new
cases that occurred in a given population
within a certain period.

February 2016 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics past Questions

[LI 672]                                          FEBRUARY 2016                             Sub.
Code: 4164
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION
PAPER IV – CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS
Q.P. Code : 544164
Time : Three Hours                                                                         Maximum
: 70 Marks
Answer All Questions
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                   
             (2 x 10 = 20)
1. Classify dental amalgam. Write in detail about techniques for amalgam restoration fabrication.
2. Ellis classification of traumatic injuries. Write in detail about storage medium and management
of avulsed tooth.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                               
           (10 x 5 = 50)
1. Irrigants in endodontics.
2. Rubber dam.
3. Dental operating microscope.
4. High copper silver amalgam.
5. Glass ionomer cement.
6. Prefabricated post system.
7. Endodontic microbiology.
8. Factors influencing healing after endodontic treatment.
9. Gingival marginal trimmer.
10. Gutta percha.
*******


August 2015 - Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics past Questions


[LH 672]                                          AUGUST 2015                                 Sub.
Code: 4164
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION
PAPER IV – CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS
Q.P. Code: 544164
Time : Three Hours                                                                         Maximum
: 70 marks
Answer All Questions
I. Elaborate on:                                                                                 
             (2 x 10 = 20)
1. Discuss in detail about classification II mesio occlusal in lay cavity preparation for lower
right first molar. Add a note on cast metal restorations giving their indications advantages and
disadvantages.
2. Write about classification of endodontic instruments. Enumerate methods of working length
determination with a brief note on apex locations.
II. Write notes on :                                                                             
           (10 x 5 = 50)
1. Tarnish and corrosion.

2. Castable ceramics.

3. Mat Gold.

4. Direct Vaniers.

5. Types and uses of Wedges.

6. Chlorhexidine uses.

7. Replacement Resorption.
8. Mishaps in cleaning and shaping.

9. Access cavity for upper central incisor.

10. Thermoplastized Gutta percha.
*******



February 2015 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

[LG 672]                                  FEBRUARY 2015                     Sub. Code: 4164

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER IV - CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS
Q.P Code: 544164
Time: 180 Minutes                                                                Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                                 
(2 x 10 = 20)

1.  Define dentin hypersensitivity. Discuss the cause, mechanism and management of dentin
hypersensitivity.

2.  Define working length in endodontics. Enumerate the methods to determine working length.
Discuss in detail Apex locators.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                             (10
x 5 = 50)

1.  Design of a dental bur.
2.  Smear layer.
3.  Matricing for direct tooth colored restorations.
4.  Home bleaching techniques.
5.  Trituration.
6.  Pulpitis.
7.  Gutta percha chemistry, composition and uses.
8.  Pulpotomy.
9.  Root canal irrigants.
10. Avulsed tooth and its management.
*******


August 2014 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

[LF 672]                                      AUGUST  2014                       Sub. Code: 4164

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER IV - CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY & ENDODONTICS
Q.P Code: 544164
Time: 180 minutes                                                              Maximum: 70 marks

I.  Elaborate on:                                                                                 
(2X10=20)

1.  Define bleaching. Enumerate the materials used and various techniques of bleaching. Describe in
detail night guard bleaching technique.

2.  Define obturation. Enumerate the materials used and various techniques of obturation. Describe
in detail warm vertical condensation technique.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                             
(10X5=50)
1.   Demineralization-Remineralization cycle
2.  Instrument formula for hand cutting instruments
3.  Hybrid layer
4.  Wedging techniques
5. Compare and contrast tooth preparation for silver amalgam versus composite restoration
6.  Phoenix abscess
7.  Resin based endodontic sealers
8.  Standardization of a K-file endodontic instrument
9.  Apexification
10. Root end filling materials
******


February 2014 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

[LE 672]                            FEBRUARY 2014                        Sub. Code:4164

FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER IV - CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY & ENDODONTICS
Q.P Code: 544164

Time: 180 minutes                                                         Maximum: 70 marks


I. Elaborate on:                                                                           
(2X10=20)

1.  Classify Pins used in Pin retained amalgam restorations. Write in detail about Self threaded
pins.

2.  Enumerate different techniques of cleaning and shaping of the root canal using hand
instruments. Describe step back technique in detail.

II. Write Notes on:                                                                       
(10X5=50)
1.  Management of Tooth Avulsion
2.  Mineral trioxide aggregate
3.  Direct pulp capping
4.  Wedges and wedging techniques
5.  Internal Resorption
6.  Biocompatibility of Glass lonomer Cements
7.  Walking Bleach
8.  Sodium Hypochlorite
9.  Hemisection of teeth
10. Microfilled Composites
*******


August 2013 - Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

[LD 672]                                      AUGUST 2013                              Sub. Code:
4164 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER – IV CONSERVATIVE DENTISRY & ENDODONTICS
Q .P .Code: 544164
Time: 180 Minutes                                                        Maximum: 70 Marks

I. Elaborate on:                                                                        (2x10=20)

1. Define obturation, discuss about time of obturation and lateral condensation technique.

2. Classify traumatic injuries and discuss in detail about complicated crown / root fractures with
pulp exposure.

II. Write notes on:                                                                   (10x5=50)
1. Smear layer.
2. Glassionomer cements.
3. Sterilization of instruments.
4. High gold alloys.
5. Bevells in tooth preparation.
6. Pin Retained Amalgam.
7. Standardization of hand instruments.
8. Castable ceramics.
9. Protaper.
10. Instrument grasps.
*****



Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions February 2013

[LC 672]                                   FEBRUARY 2013                           Sub. Code: 4164
FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER – IV CONSERVATIVE DENTISRY & ENDODONTICS
Q .P .Code: 544164
Time: 180 Minutes                                                        Maximum: 70 Marks
I. Elaborate on:                                                                        (2x10=20)

1. Classify & Write in detail about Operative Hand Instruments. Add a note on Instrument Formula.

2. Describe in detail, the classification and various treatment options of Discoloured anterior
teeth.

II. Write notes on:                                                                   (10x5=50)
1. Core materials for obturation.
2. Apex Locators.
3. Sodium Hypochlorite.
4. Management of Avulsed tooth.
5. Gingival Retraction Cord.
6. Casting shrinkage of cast gold alloys & its compensations.
7. Differences between Class II Amalgam & Inlay cavity preparations.
8. Standardization of Endodontic Instruments.
9. Pain control in Endodontics.
10. Radio Visual Graphy.
*******


August 2012 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

[LB 672]                                       AUGUST 2012                              Sub. Code:
4164 FOURTH YEAR B.D.S. DEGREE EXAM
PAPER – IV CONSERVATIVE DENTISRY & ENDODONTICS
Q .P .Code: 544164
Time : 180 Minutes                                                                  Maximum : 100
marks Answer ALL questions in the same order.
I. Elaborate on:   (2*20=40)                                                             


1. Ellis classification of traumatic Injuries. Write in detail about storage medium and management of avulsed tooth.     

2. Classification, etiology and management non-carious lesion and disfiguration of teeth.                                                     

II. Write notes on:  (12*5=60)
1. Gingival marginal trimmer.                                                     
2. High copper amalgam.                                   
3. Endodontic microbiology.                             
4. Mineral trioxide aggregate.                           
5. Rubber dam.                                                   
6. Dental mercury hygiene recommendation.         
7. Internal resorption.                                                           
8. Wedges and types of wedging.                                     
9. Dentin bonding agents.                                         
10. Glass ionomer cement.                                     
11. Dental operating microscopes.                         
12. Factor Influencing healing after endodontic treatment.           

*******



Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

Click on the respective year below to view the Past questions.

# FEB 2012 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# August 2012 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics past Questions

# February 2013 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# August 2013 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics past Questions

# February 2014 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# August 2014 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# February 2015 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# August 2015 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

# February 2016 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

Feb 2012 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Past Questions

FEB 2012   [LA 672]                                                                                  Sub.  Code: 4164
FOURTH B.D.S DEGREE EXAMINATION
PAPER IV CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS
Q .P .Code: 544164

Time: Three hours                                                        Maximum: 70 Marks
Answer ALL questions in the same order Draw Suitable diagrams wherever necessary
I.  Elaborate on:                                                                           
(2×10=20)

1. Discuss in detail the materials and various steps involved in placing a composite resin restoration for a mesio – incisally fractured upper central incisor.

2. Define Working Length. Write in detail one method of working length determination. Discuss about  Stepback method of preparation of root canal.
II. Write notes on:                                                                       
(10×5=50)
1. Attrition, Abrasion and Erosion
2. Inlay wax pattern
3. Instrument grasps
4. Hypersensitivity
5. Shade matching for ceramics
6. High copper amalgam
7. Culture methods and reversal
8. Endosonics
9. Rationale of endodontic treatment
10. Post endodontic restoration
*******



Fracture of RCT treated tooth

# Which of the following accounts for why endodontically treated posterior teeth are more susceptible to fracture than untreated ones?
A. Loss of moisture
B. Damaged coronal structure
C. Plastic deformation of the dentin
D. Loss of pulpal vitality


The correct answer is B. DAMAGED CORONAL STRUCTURE

Endodontically treated teeth have a decreased amount of coronal dentin due to the access preparation necessary for root canal treatment.

Loss of coronal dentin alters the internal architecture of the tooth, changing the dispersement of forces in the tooth.

The change to the internal architecture put the tooth at higher risk for fracture.

Dental treatment - Endodontic perforation

# Which of the following locations would a perforation demonstrate the BEST prognosis?
A. Floor of pulp chamber
B. Coronal 1/3 of root
C. Middle 1/3 of root
D. Apical 1/3 of root


The correct answer is D. Apical third of root.


Apical perforations occur through the apical foramen or the body of the root to form  a new canal.

The more apical the perforation, the more favorable the prognosis for the tooth. (except for the coronal perforations)

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