Kantipur Dental College - Oral Pathology - Pre- Board Examination, October 2018

Kantipur Dental College
BDS Program
Pre- Board Examination, October 2018

Subject: Oral Pathology                                                        Level : BDS Third Year 
Time: 2 Hours and 30 Minutes     
Full Marks: 50

SECTION 'B' - 25 Marks

1. Define Dental caries. Discuss the histological features of enamel caries.  [1+5=6]

2. Enumerate the potentially malignant disorders affecting the oral cavity. Describe the pathogenesis and histological gradings of OSMF.    [1+2+2=5]

3. Enumerate the proliferative lesions of the oral cavity. Add a note on epithelial papilloma. [2+3=5]

4. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Garre's Osteomyelitis
b. Carcinoma In Situ
c. Kaposi's Sarcoma

[Section 'C' 25 marks]
5. A 40 year old male patient came with the complaint of a non healing ulcer on his lateral border of tongue since three and half months.
a. Write the differential diagnosis of an ulcer on the oral cavity.  [2]

The patient had habit of using tobacco for 3-4 years but had stopped since 5 years. On examination, the ulcer was indurated having rolled out border and was painful. The lymph nodes were painful and mobile.
b. What is the most likely diagnosis? [1]
c. Discuss the histological features and its different grades. [2+1=3]

6.  Enumerate the benign connective tissue tumors of the oral cavity. Write in Brief on Hemangioma. [2+3=5]

7. Enlist the family of Pemphigus. Discuss the pathogenesis and histological features of Pemphigus vulgaris. [1+2+2=5]

8. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Tzanck Test
b. Teeth as an age estimation tool
c. Stomatitis nicotina palatine

Dental pain is NOT the ONLY symptom of Dental Diseases

Most people don't know that dental pain is not the only symptom of dental diseases. Even we dentists before going to the dental college were unaware of the fact that the teeth may never be painful but are lost untimely due to periodontitis. In fact, there is no such thing as untimely loss. If you lose your permanent teeth before you die, that is untimely loss of teeth. Because, you need to eat until the day you die. And, When you lose your teeth earlier, your choices of food change, your amount of food changes and your speech becomes less understandable and children and youngsters hate being around with you because of the foul odor emanating from your oral cavity. Let's discuss some symptoms other than dental pain that may be an indication of oral and dental disease for which you need to see a dentist for consultation.

1. Loosening of teeth
Loosening of teeth which used to be firm can be due to various reasons including trauma, periodontitis, trauma from occlusion, and any other underlying pathology. Whenever calculus deposits around teeth and harbors a lot of plaque and bacteria, the gums start receding and the teeth appear longer. The bony support to the teeth is also compromised as the height of alveolar bone also decreases. As a result teeth start to feel loose. But, this phenomenon is completely painless. You'll probably lose your teeth in next few years if you ignore these symptoms.

2. Bleeding of Gums while brushing
Bleeding of gums is the first clinical sign of gingivitis, which is a technical term for inflammation of the gums or gingiva. Whenever the oral hygiene is poor and plaque and calculus deposits develop, then the gums become reddish and enlarged, tend to bleed more easily. If not treated in time, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis and more unfavorable will be the prognosis of the teeth. 

3. Foul Breath
Foul breath is the most disgusting thing which could turn off your nearest ones and may affect your life emotionally and financially as well. How can you convince a potential customer for sale if he runs away from you from a two-meter distance? This could be due to a lot of disorders which may originate in any part of the Gastrointestinal tract up to the stomach and sometimes even due to nasal and sinus cavity problems. Whatever may be the cause, it can be diagnosed and symptoms could be minimized. Most of the cases are due to tongue coating and presence of deep pockets in the gingiva. Proper oral hygiene and Oral prophylaxis will help to promote overall oral health as well as this particular symptom.

Likewise, there are many problems other than dental pain such as pus discharge from the gums, painful ulcers on the tongue and corners of mouth, yellowish hue of teeth, blackening of teeth and many more. You need not wait till the toothache is intolerable for consulting a dentist. A simple cavity that could have been restored two months back might deteriorate into a deep pulpitis which requires a root canal treatment conting you more time, money and suffering. 

Why is the World Getting Busier and Noisier?

People these days have adopted a noisier, more violent and more partying lifestyle.  They expect every day to be a party day. And, that party too, must be with a deafening loud DJ music in which more than 5-6 notes are played at any instant. Overloaded music in very high volume, intense exercises and cardiovascular workout trainings, movie shows, dance Clubs and Restaurants, all are ruling the current world. Have you ever contemplated why is it happening so? Yes, in the days of past, there used to be fairs too, loudspeakers with music used to be played, but they were gentler and less disturbing to a calm soul observing it. An enlightened soul also cannot tolerate the upbeats and cacophony of the revelry these days, it is becoming extreme.

Well, that might be due to the rat race that is going on. People need to have good grades, get a good job and earn a lot of money before they are reputable in society. While trying to do so, everyone finds himself in the chasm of servitude, helplessness, and despair. Every second you are constantly reminded of what you are supposed to do and what you are not supposed to do. You need something that will distract you from the continuous unlimited pressure. Had it been a physical pressure, today's men would simply be flat pulps of broad broad plates. Thankfully it doesn't have any physical significance.

When you sit quietly in a silent room with your eyes closed, you cannot remain calm. However hard you try, your inner soul is fighting a war. To overcome this by turning off the internal conflict seems nearly impossible. Then, comes the role of temporary distractors, Clubs, Partying, Alcohol, Smoking, Prostitution and what not. You cannot calm the inner soul, you cannot hear the voice without being agitated yourself so that you try to keep your focus out of it, by turning the volume of the outside more higher and higher. But, that relief lasts only till the music is on, only till the battery lasts, only till the alcohol flowing through your nerves last. Then again you hear the noise, again you feel agitated. It takes a simple reflection into one's self to know and observe this fact. But, who dares to give it a try?

Next time when you go to the party, don't drink a single drink and observe each person at the party very well. See how they are calming themselves, imagine how would they feel tomorrow morning, in a crowded park or a bus, just remain quiet and observe people, hear their conversation and realise your inner soul's voice. Hear it and befriend it. Then from the next time, you don't need any high volume music, alcohol, smoke, or any other transient auxiliaries to keep you high, you'll get a natural high all the time.

Nobel Medical College and Teaching Hospital, General Surgery, Third year BDS, Pre-University Examination 2018

Nobel Medical College and Teaching Hospital
Kanchanbari-5, Biratnagar
Pre-University Examination, BDS 2018

Subject: General Surgery (New Course)         Level : BDS III (Aug 2015 & 2014 Batch )
Time: 2 Hours and 30 Minutes                                                                Date: Oct 26, 2018
Full Marks: 50

  • Answer each section in a separate answer book.

SAQ SECTION 'B' - 25 Marks

1. Write a short note on Hemorrhagic shock.  [5]

2. Classify wounds. Briefly describe about surgical site infection.  [5]

3. Write short not on pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland. [5]

4. Enumerate the causes of Acute abdomen. [5]

5. Write down the clinical features and management of acute appendicitis. [5]

SAQ [Section 'C' 25 marks]
1. Write short notes on premalignant lesions of oral cavity.  [5]

2. Briefly describe about surgical anatomy of inguinal canal.  [5]

3. Write in brief about gall bladder stones and its management.  [5]

4. Write short note on ranula.  [5]

5. Describe in brief about obstructive jaundice. [5]

Kantipur Dental College - General Medicine - Pre- Board Examination, December 2018

Kantipur Dental College
BDS Program
Pre- Board Examination, December 2018

Subject: General Medicine (New Course)        Level : BDS Third Year 
Time: 2 Hours and 30 Minutes     
Full Marks: 50

SECTION 'B' - 25 Marks

1. Discuss about the clinical features, complications, investigations and treatment and prophylaxis of Malarial fever.  [1+1+1+2+1=6]

2. Discuss the etiology, clinical features of Infective Endocarditis. Add a note on dental prophylaxis. [1+1+3=5]

3. Enumerate the risk factors and complications of Essential Hypertension. Discuss the management of acute severe asthma.[1+1+3=5]

4. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Clinical Features and Treatment of Pneumonia
b. Portal Hypertension
c. Bacillary Dysentery: Management and prevention

[Section 'C' 25 marks]
5. Define and classify anemias. A 17 year old gives history of bleeding gums and menorrhagia. Her platelet count is 15000/mm3. Bone marrow examination shows increased megakaryocytes. How would treat this case? [0.5+1.5+4=6]

6. Define normal Erythropoiesis. Differentiate nephrotic and nephritic syndrome. [2+3=5]

7. Discuss the clinical features and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Mention micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. [2+3=5]

8. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Trigeminal Neuralgia
b. Rickets
c. Anaphylactic shock

Post Dental Extraction Care for Speed Recovery - Healing of Extraction socket

Dental extraction is one of the most feared treatments. It is the treatment that can be attributed for all the dental phobia and people hating dentists. Because pain is anticipated and the threshold of pain tolerance is lowered much. But, when performed under appropriate local anesthesia, Dental Extractions are completely painless procedures.

Another reason people fear dental extraction is that they are left with an open wound and empty socket that is often painful after the effect of local anesthetic wears off and the numbness of the tongue and lips disappear. So, they are instructed by the operating dentist to take a tablet of analgesic (usually NSAID- Ibuprofen 400 mg or Paracetamol 500 mg) which will start showing its effect before the effect of local anesthetic wears off.

Here are some of the things you can do to heal your extraction socket faster. To make things more retentive, Let's tabulate them into DOs and DON'Ts.

Things TO Do:
1. Press hard on the gauze piece for half an hour to apply sufficient pressure on the socket and stop bleeding allowing the formation of blood clot. Minimize speaking for up to 3-4 hours.

2. Take one tablet of Ibuprofen 400 mg or Paracetamol 500 mg immediately after removing the gauze piece. This will alleviate the pain.

3. Take only soft foods for a few days. Eat foods only after cooling them. Excessive hot foods will dissolve the clot and initiate fresh bleeding.

4. Maintain good oral hygiene and brush teeth as usual. But, do not brush over the extraction socket directly.

5. Rinse gently with lukewarm saltwater thrice daily for up to 5-7 days after extraction for lowering the bacterial load and minimizing the chances of infection of the wound site.

Things NOT TO DO:
1. Do not smoke or chew tobacco or drink alcohol for at least 7 days. Smoking will create negative pressure and dislodge the clot which induces fresh bleeding and increases the tendency to have a dry socket which is very painful. It will decrease blood flow and delay healing of the socket.

2. Do not spit for 2-3 days. Swallow all the saliva.

3. Don't eat hard or sticky foods, don't sip beverages with a straw and don't play the wound area with tongue. All these will dislodge the clot.

4. Do not do vigorous exercise for a few days.

It is normal to have some blood-tinged saliva for up to 24 hours. Don't freak out if you notice any. If excessive fresh bleeding continues even after hours, take a clean gauze piece / clean cotton handkerchief and bite on it firmly over the socket for half an hour to control the bleeding.

Contact or visit your dentist if an emergency occurs.

If you take care of the infection and follow these instructions carefully, you will have a speedy recovery from the dental extraction and healing of the extraction socket is uneventful.

KUSMS BDS III General Medicine Pre University Exam SAQ and MEQ Past Questions December 2018

Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences
BDS Program
Pre-University Examination, December 2018

Subject: General Medicine        Level : BDS III (New Course)
Time: 2 Hours and 30 Minutes                                                                Date: 9th Dec, 2018
Full Marks: 50

  • Answer each section in a separate answer book.
  • Write brief, relevant and legible answers.
  • Illustrate your answers with well-labeled diagrams wherever required.
  • All questions are compulsory.

SECTION 'B' - 25 Marks

1. A 17 years old boy, presented with high fever, shortness of breath and palpitation. On examination, he was pale and heart murmur was audible.  [1+3+2=6]
a. What is your likely diagnosis?
b. What investigations will you do to confirm the diagnosis?
c. How will you manage him?

2. How do you diagnose bronchial asthma? Write down the treatment of acute severe asthma. [2+3=5]

3. What is septic shock? How do  you manage? [1+4=5]

4. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Treatment of Malaria
b. Acute viral hepatitis
c. Dysentery

[Section 'C' 25 marks]
5. A 15 years old lady presented with the history of gum bleeding and repeated respiratory tract infections. On examination, she was pale with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. [2+4=6]
a. What are your likely differential diagnosis?
b. What investigations will you do to confirm the diagnosis?

6. How do you diagnose Diabetes mellitus? Enumerate the complications of diabetes. [2+3=5]

7. What are the causes and management of hypovolemic shock? [2+3=5]

8. Write short notes on: [3*3=9]
a. Anti-hypertensive drugs
b. Corticosteroids
c. Acute renal failure

Unemployment in Dentistry - Poor Pay, More Working Hours

Unemployment or joblessness is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed. There are many types of unemployment out of which let's see some forms of unemployment that is prevalent in dentistry. Unemployment can be voluntary, i.e. a person does not take a job because he is not satisfied with the salary and benefits he will be receiving in proportion to the working hours. There are jobs available, but the pay is too little, say Rs. 15000-20000 per month for a dentist. This is a situation of voluntary unemployment. And there may be relative unemployment too, which is a person who could get a job offer of Rs. 50,000 per month is doing Rs. 20,000 per month job due to unavailability of the job and is actively searching for some job with better pay. The person has qualification for a better job but is forced to settle for less. This situation is not absolute unemployment but is called relative unemployment.

MCQs on Cysts and Tumors - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

NOTE: It has been proved that you will retain more of what you study if you test yourself immediately after studying. For that, Watch this Video and Study all the MCQs first and then Test yourself by taking the Quiz below. 

# Which of the following is not an advantage of marsupialization?
A. Exposure of very little bone
B. Preservation of vital structure
C. Rapid healing
D. Conserve surgical sutures

# Needle aspiration of a central bone lesion is useful:
A. to rule out a vascular lesion
B. to determine thickness of buccal plate
C. to diagnose traumatic bone cyst
D. to feel root surfaces

# Which of the following surgery is indicated for the removal of the 3 cm ameloblastoma involving the inferior border of the mandible?
A. Enucleation
B. Fulguration
C. Cryosurgery
D. Resection

KUSMS BDS III Oral Pathology, Microbiology and Forenic Odontology Pre University Exam SAQ and MEQ Past Questions December 2018

Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences
BDS Program
Pre-University Examination, December 2018

Subject: Oral Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Odontology         Level : BDS III (New Course)
Time: 2 Hours and 30 Minutes                                                                Date: 7th Dec, 2018
Full Marks: 50

  • Answer each section in a separate answer book.
  • Write brief, relevant and legible answers.
  • Illustrate your answers with well-labeled diagrams wherever required.
  • All questions are compulsory.

SECTION 'B' - 25 Marks

1. A 50 years male presented with difficulty in opening mouth since two months. The patient has the habit of chewing areca nut and smoking tobacco since 7 years. On examination, oral mucosa showed blanching and white fibrous bands bilaterally.       [1+1+2+2 = 6]
a. What could be the most probable diagnosis of the above lesion?
b. List the differential diagnosis of the lesion.
c. Discuss the etiopathogenesis and histological grading of this lesion.

2. Enumerate pigmented lesions of oral cavity. Describe 5 criteria for clinical diagnosis of melanoma. Add a note on histological variants of melanoma. [1+2+2=5]

3. Enumerate the fungal infections of oral cavity. Describe oral candidiasis in detail. [1+4=5]

4. Write short notes on:        [3*3=9]
a. Verrucous hyperplasia  vs Verrucous carcinoma
b. Ghost cell
c. Recent advances in caries detection

[Section 'C' 25 marks]
5. Classify salivary gland tumor. Describe histogenesis, etiology, Clinical Features and Histopathology of adenolymphoma.           [2+1+1+1+1=6]

6. Classify vesiculobullous lesions affecting the oral cavity. Discuss pathogenesis of Lichen planus.  [2+3=5]

7. Role of a Dentist in Forensic Medicine    [5]

8. Write Short notes on:          [3*3=9]
a. Adaptation Syndrome
b. Cytological Smear
c. Reimplantation and Transplantation of teeth in brief