Resistance of mini screw to dislodgement comes from contact with:

 # Resistance of mini screw to dislodgement comes from contact with:
A. Soft tissue
B. Teeth
C. Medullary bone
D. Cortical bone

The correct answer is D. Cortical bone.

The quality and quantity of the alveolar bone are considered important influential factors affecting the success rate of orthodontic mini-implants. The cortical bone thickness is considered a decisive factor in the overall success/failure of the mini-implant. It has been shown that an increase in the cortical bone thickness in the alveolar bone of maxilla and mandible significantly increases the primary stability of the mini-implant. A recent meta-analysis showed positive association between mini-implant stability and amount of cortical bone. 

Reference: Temporary Anchorage Devices in Orthodontics, SECOND EDITION, Ravindra Nanda, BDS, MDS, PhD

Understanding Gingival Stippling: What It Is and What It Signifies


Gingival stippling is a term commonly used in dentistry to describe the texture or appearance of the gums. These stippled gums can tell dental professionals a lot about a person's oral health. While it might not be a topic of everyday conversation, understanding gingival stippling is crucial for both dental practitioners and patients. In this article, we will explore what gingival stippling is, its significance, and how it relates to oral health.

What is Gingival Stippling?

Gingival stippling refers to the small, dimpled, or pebbled texture that is often seen on the surface of healthy gums. This stippled appearance is caused by the presence of tiny, raised dots or projections on the gingival tissue, creating a finely textured, orange-peel-like appearance. Gingival stippling is most commonly found on the gums that surround the teeth in the upper and lower arches of the mouth.

Significance of Gingival Stippling:

Indication of Gingival Health:
Gingival stippling is primarily a sign of healthy gum tissue. When gums are stippled, it generally indicates that the underlying gingival tissue is firm, well-attached to the teeth, and free from inflammation or disease. Healthy gums play a crucial role in supporting the teeth and protecting them from harmful bacteria.

Assessment of Periodontal Health:
Dentists and dental hygienists use gingival stippling as one of the indicators to assess a patient's periodontal (gum) health. The absence of stippling, or a smooth, shiny appearance of the gums, may suggest an underlying issue like gum disease (periodontitis) or other oral health concerns.

Measurement of Gingival Recession:
Gingival stippling also helps in measuring gingival recession, which is when the gums start to pull away from the teeth. By comparing the stippled and non-stippled areas of the gums, dental professionals can determine the extent of gum recession, which is crucial for diagnosing and treating various oral conditions.

Aesthetic Considerations:
While the primary focus of gingival stippling is on gum health, it also has aesthetic implications. Well-stippled gums can contribute to an attractive smile by providing a uniform and textured appearance. Many people with naturally stippled gums are often perceived to have healthier-looking smiles.

Clinical Considerations:
In restorative and cosmetic dentistry, gingival stippling can influence treatment planning and the outcome of procedures like dental crowns, veneers, and dental implants. Dentists may need to replicate the stippled texture to create a natural-looking and harmonious smile.

Causes of Gingival Stippling:

Gingival stippling is primarily due to the arrangement and orientation of the connective tissue fibers beneath the gum tissue. These fibers create the characteristic raised dots on the gum surface. The presence of stippling can also be influenced by factors such as genetics, age, and overall gum health.


Gingival stippling is a subtle but significant aspect of oral health and aesthetics. Understanding what it is and its significance can help individuals and dental professionals identify and address potential oral health issues in a timely manner. Regular dental check-ups and proper oral hygiene practices are key to maintaining gingival stippling and overall gum health. If you notice changes in the appearance of your gums, it's advisable to consult with a dentist to ensure the health and vitality of your oral tissues.


1. Newman, M. G., Takei, H. H., & Klokkevold, P. R. (2015). Carranza's Clinical Periodontology (12th ed.). Elsevier.
2. Darby, M. L., & Walsh, M. M. (2014). Dental Hygiene Theory and Practice (4th ed.). Saunders.
3. Lang, N. P., & Bartold, P. M. (2018). Periodontal health. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 45(Suppl 20), S9-S16. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12938.

The movement of bone in response to its own growth is termed as:

 # The movement of bone in response to its own growth is termed as:
A. Rotation
B. Primary displacement
C. Secondary displacement
D. Differentiation

The correct answer is B. Primary displacement.

Displacement is described as the change in position of an object following the application of force. In this chapter, the term will be used for body tissues (namely, bone), and force is the growth of body tissues. The displacement of bones occurs with growth in two ways:
1. Primary displacement of a bone occurs due to its growth, which causes it to move from its original position. For example displacement of the chin anteriorly due to the increasing mandibular length.
2. Secondary displacement (also called translatory growth) is an illustration of growth at a location subsequent to actual growth occurring in a distant part of the skeletal system. The structure in question is displaced from its position due to- the growth of adjacent structures. For example, growth of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis leads to anterior displacement of the front maxillary complex.

Reference: OP Kharbanda

Next to third molars, the most frequently impacted teeth are the:

 # Next to third molars, the most frequently impacted teeth are the: 
a) second molars 
b) upper canines 
c) lower canines 
d) upper incisors

The correct answer is B. Upper canines. 

The most commonly impacted teeth are third molars, followed by the maxillary canines and mandibular second molars. 
Reference: Graber 7th Edition

Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) is used primarily in:

 # Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) is used primarily in: 
a) young children 
b) the mixed dentition 
c) older adolescents and adults 
d) adults who cannot tolerate other devices

The correct answer is C. Older adolescents and adults.

In late adolescents and adults, more force is required to open the midpalatal suture due to its increased interdigitation. Treatment with a conventional RPE (Rapid Palatal Expansion) could lead to unwanted dental side effects. Therefore, from the age of 16 onwards, surgically-assisted RPE (SARPE) is commonly applied to overcome these limitations by surgically releasing the interdigitated suture prior to maxillary expansion with an RPE (Rapid Palatal Expansion) device, such as a hyrax or a Trans-Palatal Distractor (TPD). However, the inherent risks of a surgical operation, together with the cost, the hospitalization, and attendant morbidity may pose a constraint for patients to undergo this procedure.

The ensuing quest for a non-surgical treatment for maxillary transverse deficiency in patients who would normally apply for a SARPE stimulated the development of Miniscrew-Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (MARPE) by Lee et al. in South Korea and by Moon et al. in the USA. MARPE is either a tooth-bone-borne or a solely bone-borne RPE device with a rigid element that connects to mini-screws inserted into the palate, delivering the expansion force directly to the basal bone of the maxilla. It was designed to maximize skeletal effects and to minimize dentoalveolar effects of expansion, based on the findings of previous histological studies revealing that the mid-palatal suture does not fully ossify in humans even at an elderly age, possibly due to the constant mechanical stress that it undergoes. MARPE has received widespread attention in recent years and several researchers have studied the efficacy of MARPE. However, to our knowledge, a systematic review on this topic has not yet been published.

Reference: Kapetanović A, Theodorou CI, Bergé SJ, Schols JGJH, Xi T. Efficacy of Miniscrew-Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (MARPE) in late adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Orthod. 2021;43(3):313-323. doi:10.1093/ejo/cjab005

Registered Dental Clinics in the United Arab Emirates: Ensuring Quality Dental Care

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is renowned for its commitment to excellence in all sectors, including healthcare. When it comes to dental care, the UAE is home to a multitude of registered dental clinics that adhere to stringent quality standards. In this article, we will explore the significance of registered dental clinics in the UAE, their role in providing top-notch oral healthcare, and how they contribute to the nation's overall well-being.

The Importance of Registration

Dental clinics in the UAE must undergo a rigorous registration and accreditation process to operate legally. This process is overseen by various regulatory bodies, including the UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention (MOHAP) and the respective health authorities of each emirate. The registration of dental clinics serves several crucial purposes:

Ensuring Compliance: Registered clinics are required to comply with strict regulations related to hygiene, equipment, and the qualifications of their dental staff. This helps maintain a high standard of care.

Patient Safety: The foremost concern of registered dental clinics is patient safety. These clinics are regularly inspected to ensure that all infection control measures are in place, minimizing the risk of disease transmission.

Quality Assurance: Registration also involves assessing the qualifications and expertise of dental professionals working in the clinic. This guarantees that patients receive treatment from well-trained, licensed, and experienced practitioners.

Ethical Practices: Registered clinics are expected to follow ethical guidelines in their operations, including transparent billing practices and maintaining patient confidentiality.

Wide Range of Services

Registered dental clinics in the UAE offer a wide range of services to cater to the diverse needs of the population. These services include:

General Dentistry: Routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, and extractions.

Specialized Care: Services such as orthodontics, endodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, and pediatric dentistry are readily available.

Cosmetic Dentistry: Clinics offer cosmetic procedures like teeth whitening, veneers, and dental implants to enhance smiles.

Emergency Care: Many registered dental clinics are equipped to handle dental emergencies, providing timely treatment for injuries or sudden oral health issues.

Preventive Care: Emphasis is placed on preventive care, including fluoride treatments and dental sealants, to maintain optimal oral health.

Patient-Centered Approach

One of the hallmarks of registered dental clinics in the UAE is their patient-centered approach. They prioritize patient comfort, education, and involvement in treatment decisions. This fosters a positive patient experience and encourages individuals to take an active role in their oral health.

Cutting-Edge Technology

Registered dental clinics in the UAE often invest in state-of-the-art dental technology and equipment. This includes digital X-rays, intraoral scanners, and laser dentistry tools. The integration of advanced technology enhances diagnostic accuracy, treatment precision, and overall patient satisfaction.


In the United Arab Emirates, registered dental clinics play a pivotal role in providing high-quality dental care to residents and visitors alike. Through stringent registration processes, adherence to international standards, and a commitment to patient well-being, these clinics contribute significantly to the nation's healthcare infrastructure. When seeking dental care in the UAE, patients can have confidence in the professionalism, expertise, and dedication of dental professionals working in registered clinics. Access to quality dental care is essential not only for oral health but also for the overall well-being of the population. 

Succinylcholine prevents bronchospasm by:

 # Succinylcholine prevents bronchospasm by:
A. Depolarising block
B. Direct muscle relaxation
C. Centrally acting muscle relaxation
D. Dual action

The correct answer is A. Depolarising block.

A depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, succinylcholine adheres to post-synaptic cholinergic receptors of the motor endplate, inducing continuous disruption that results in transient fasciculations or involuntary muscle contractions and subsequent skeletal muscle paralysis. Following pharmacological onset, further neuromuscular transmittance across the neuromuscular junction is interrupted, given the medication dosage is sufficient and remains bound to the cholinergic receptor sites of the motor endplate. Depolarization of the postjunctional membrane deactivates sodium avenues resulting in inhibited responses to acetylcholine normally released. The mechanism of action is apparent within 60 seconds of intravenous administration and continues up to 360 seconds or 6 minutes.

Tic douloureux is synonymous with:

 # Tic douloureux is synonymous with:
A. Trigeminal neuralgia
B. Temporal lobe epilepsy
C. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
D. Todds paralysis

The correct answer is A. Trigeminal neuralgia.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN), also called Fothergill disease, tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia is a long-term pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve, the nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. It is a form of neuropathic pain. There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of the face that lasts for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is regarded as one of the most painful disorders known to medicine and often results in depression.

First to classify malocclusion on structural basis:

 # First to classify malocclusion on structural basis:
A. Salzmann
B. Kingsley
C. Angle
D. Katz

The correct answer is A. Salzmann.

Salzmann in 1950 was the first to classify malocclusion based on skeletal structures. 
• Skeletal Class I: These are purely dental malocclusions. The jaws are in harmony with one another. The profile is orthognathic. 
• Skeletal Class II: Subnormal and distal mandibular development in relation to maxilla 
• Skeletal Class III: Overgrowth of the mandible with a prognathic mandible. 

Indications of Hydroxyapatite coated implants over titanium or metal-surfaced implants include all of the following except

 # Indications of Hydroxyapatite coated implants over titanium or metal-surfaced implants include all of the following except?
A. The need for greater bone-implant interface contact area
B. The ability to place the implant in type I bone
C. Fresh extraction sites
D. Newly grafted sites

The correct answer is B. The ability to place the implant in type I bone. 

Indications of HA-coated implants over titanium- or metal-surfaced implants include: 
• Need of more contact area at bone-implant interface 
• Implant can be given in type IV bone 
• Implant can be given at fresh extraction sites 
• Implant can be given at newly grafted sites