SEARCH:

Suprahyoid Muscles and Infrahyoid Muscles

 # All of the following belongs to suprahyoid group of muscles EXCEPT:
A. Omohyoid
B. Mylohyoid
C. Stylohyoid
D. Geniohyoid



The correct answer is A. Omohyoid. 

Suprahyoid Muscles are: Digastric, Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid, Geniohyoid   @ Super Stylish Getho and Mylo Di. 

Infrahyoid muscles: Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid  (SH, ST, TH, OH)


Torticollis or Wry Neck is the result of:

 # Torticollis or Wry Neck is the result of spasm of which of the following muscles?
A. Omohyoid and sternohyoid
B. Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid
C. Platysma and mentalis
D. Scaleneus anterior and scaleneus posterior



The correct answer is B. Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid

Torticollis or Wry neck is a deformity in which the head is bent to one side and the chin points to the other side. This is a result of spasm or contracture of the muscles supplied by the spinal accessory nerve, these being the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius.

Which of the following are called as ‘Signal nodes’?

 # Which of the following are called as ‘Signal nodes’?
A. Supraclavicular nodes
B. Jugulo-omohyoid
C. Jugulodigastric
D. Submandibular



The correct answer is A. Supraclavicular nodes

The left supraclavicular nodes or Virchow's or scalene nodes are also involved in malignant growths of distant organs, e.g. the stomach, the testis and other abdominal organs. Therefore, they are known as signaal nodes. Scalene node biopsy is very helpful in the early diagnosis of such malignancies. 

The origin of clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid muscle:

 # The origin of clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid muscle is from the:
A. Medial one third of the inferior surface of the clavicle
B. Lateral one third of the inferior surface of the clavicle
C. Medial one third of the superior surface of the clavicle
D. Lateral one third of the superior surface of the clavicle



The correct answer is C. Medial one third of the superior surface of the clavicle.

Origin of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

1. The sternal head is tendinous and arises from the superolateral part of the front of the manubrium sterni.
2. The clavicular head is musculotendinous and arises from the medial one third of the superior surface of the clavicle.

Insertion of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

It is inserted 
a) by a thick tendon into the lateral  surface of the mastoid process from its tip to its superior border, and 
b) by a thin aponeurosis into the lateral half of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone.


Nerve Supply of Sternocleidomastoid

The spinal accessory nerve provides the motor supply. It passes through the muscle.

Blood supply of the sternocleidomastoid

One branch each from superior thyroid artery and suprascapular artery and two branches from the occipital artery.

Action of  Sternocleidomastoid muscle
# When one muscle contracts:
a) It turns the chin to the opposite side.
b) It can also tilt the head towards the shoulder. 

# When both muscles contract together:
a) They draw the head forwards as in eating and in lifting the head from a pillow. 
b) With the longus colli, they flex the neck against resistance. 
c) The reverse action helps in forced inspiration.




Action of digastric muscle:

 # Following is the action of digastric muscle:
A. Elevates the mandible and depresses the hyoid bone
B. Elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the mandible
C. Depresses the mandible as well as hyoid bone
D. Elevates the mandible as well as hyoid bone



The correct answer is B. Elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the mandible.

Digastric muscle depresses the mandible when the mouth is opened widely or against resistance and elevates the hyoid bone.

Temporalis muscle originates from:

 # Temporalis muscle originates from:
A. Side of the skull
B. Zygomatic process
C. Ramus of the mandible
D. Pterygopalatine fossa



The correct answer is A. Side of the skull.

Temporalis muscle arises from temporal fossa and temporal fascia and inserts into deep surface of coronoid and anterior border of the ramus of mandible. 




Medial pterygoid muscle is attached to:

 # Medial pterygoid muscle is attached to:
A. Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate
B. Lateral surface of medial pterygoid plate
C. Medial surface of medial pterygoid plate
D. Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate



The correct answer is A. Medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate

Deep head of the medial pterygoid muscle arises from medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and palatine bone. The lateral pterygoid muscle arises from lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate.


Lymphatic drainage of TMJ:

 # Lymphatic drainage of TMJ is mainly to:
A. Submandibular nodes
B. Submental nodes
C. Deep cervical nodes
D. Parotid nodes



The correct answer is D. Parotid nodes.

Nerve supply of Capsule of TMJ:

 # Which of the following supplies capsule of TMJ?
A. Facial nerve
B. Auriculotemporal nerve
C. Branch of maxillary nerve
D. First cervical nerve



The correct answer is B. Auriculotemporal nerve.

Sensory nerve supply: Sensory innervation of the TMJ is derived from the auriculotemporal and masseteric branches of V3 (otherwise known as the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve).

Blood supply of TMJ: Its arterial blood supply is provided by branches of the external carotid artery, predominantly the superficial temporal branch. Other branches of the external carotid artery, namely, the deep auricular artery, anterior tympanic artery, ascending pharyngeal artery, and maxillary artery, may also contribute to the arterial blood supply of the joint.

Dynamic receptors of the TMJ joint:

 # Which of the following are dynamic receptors of the TMJ joint?
A. Ruffini endings
B. Pacinian corpuscles
C. Golgi tendon
D. Free nerve endings





The correct answer is B. Pacinian corpuscles

Pacinian corpuscles  are dynamic mechanoreceptors which accelerate movement during reflexes. 

The receptors for specific mechanics of proprioception:
Ruffini endings- static  mechanoreceptors which position the mandible
Pacinian corpuscles- Dynamic mechanoreceptors which accelerate movement during reflexes
Golgi tendon organs- Static mechanoreceptors for protection of ligaments around the temporomandibular joint
Free nerve endings- Pain receptors for protection of the temporomandibular joint itself

Articular disc of TMJ is

 # Articular disc of TMJ is:
A. Fibrocartilaginous
B. Bony
C. Hyaline cartilage
D. Elastic cartilage



The correct answer is A. Fibrocartilaginous

The unique feature of the TMJ is the articular disc. The disc is composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue which is positioned between the two bones that form the joint. There is neither innervation nor vascularization within the central portion of the articular disc. Articular disc is oval fibrous plate with concavoconvex superior surface and concave inferior surface. It divides joint into upper and lower compartments. Upper compartment permits gliding and lower permits gliding as well as rotatory movements. 

Sublingual salivary gland is located:

 # Sublingual salivary gland is located superior to:
A. Genioglossus
B. Hyoglossus
C. Mylohyoid
D. None of the above



The correct answer is C. Mylohyoid.

Sublingual salivary gland lies superior to mylohyoid and lateral to the genioglossus muscle. Its duct opens directly into floor of mouth on the summit of sublingual fold.


Opening of submandibular gland duct:

 # The opening of submandibular gland duct into oral cavity is at:
A. Maxillary Second molar
B. Mandibular third molar
C. Dorsum of tongue
D. Sublinugual caruncle



The correct answer is D. Sublingual caruncle.

Submandibular duct or Warthin's duct is 5 cm long, emerges from submandibular gland and in its course runs on the hyoglossus between lingual and hypoglossal nerve and opens at the sublingual papilla at the side of frenum of tongue.




Ideal class V restoration

 # For an Ideal class V restoration on a mandibular premolar, which of the following is the MOST IMPORTANT factor when choosing a restorative material?
A. Ease of manipulation of material
B. Esthetics
C. Compressive strength
D. Reaction of gingival tissue


The correct answer is D. Reaction of gingival tissue.

Restorative materials that do not induce gingival tissue reaction should be considered when selecting the proper restorative material for class V restorations.

Esthetics are not a factor because the class V restoration in question is placed at the cervical area of a mandibular premolar and is not within the esthetic zone.

Compressive strength is only required for occlusal restorations or those cavities which are under heavy occlusal load.





Secretomotor fibres from inferior salivary nucleus supply:

 # Secretomotor fibres from inferior salivary nucleus supply:
A. Lacrimal gland
B. Parotid gland
C. Submandibular salivary gland
D. Sublingual salivary gland



The correct answer is B. Parotid gland.

The preganglionic fibres begin in the inferior salivatory nucleus, pass through the 9th cranial nerve and relay in the otic ganglion. The post ganglionic fibres reach the gland through the auriculotemporal nerve.

# Inferior salivatory nucleus --> IX cranial nerve tympanic branch ----> tympanic plexus ---> Lesser petrosal nerve ---> relays in otic ganglion ---> parotid gland.

# Edinger westphal nucleus ---> III nerve ---> Inferior oblique ---> Branch to ciliary ganglion ---> relay ---> short ciliary nerves supply cliliaris and constrictor pupillae muscle.

# Superior salivatory nucleus of VII nerve ---> VII nerve ---> chorda tympani branch --->  via lingual nerve ---> submandibular ganglion ---> relays ---> submandibular gland and lingual salivary salivary gland via lingual nerve.

# Lacrimatory nucleus of  VII nerve ---> VII nerve---> greater petrosal nerve + deep petrosal nerve ---> nerve of pterygoid canal ---> Pterygopalatine ganglion ---> relays to supply glands of nose, palate, pharynx and pass along maxillary nerve, zygomatic, temporal nerve, lacrimal nerve to supply lacrimal gland.

Orifice of parotid duct:

 # The orifice of parotid duct is located:
A. At the hamular notch
B. In proximity to the incisive papilla
C. On the buccal mucosa near the maxillary second molar
D. Slightly posterior to the mandibular central incisors



The correct answer is C. On the  buccal mucosa near the maxillary second molar

Parotid duct is 5 cm long, thick walled and it emerges from anterior border of the gland and runs on the masseter muscle. At the anterior border of masseter it turns medially and pierces: 
  • Buccal pad of fat
  • Buccopharyngeal fascia
  • Buccinator (obliquely)
Then, the duct runs forwards and obliquely for a short course between buccinator and oral mucosa. This acts as  a valve which prevents inflation of ductt during blowing. Finally it opens into the vestibule of mouth, at upper second molar tooth. 

Which of the following is predominantly mucous?

 # Which of the following is predominantly mucous?
A. Parotid gland
B. Submandibular gland
C. Sublingual gland
D. Von  Ebner’s gland



The correct answer is C. Sublingual gland.

Sublingual gland is a mixed gland and is predominantly mucous. @ MuSuLi.
Parotid gland is purely serous gland. @ SerPa
Submandibular gland is mixed gland and is predominantly serous.

Embryology MCQs


# Number of somatic chromosomes in humans is:
A. 42
B. 41
C. 46
D. 44

# Which of the following is true of meiosis?
A. It exclusively takes place in somatic cells
B. At the end, same number of chromosomes are maintained in the daughter cells
C. Only two daughter cells are formed at the end of meiosis
D. Crossing over and genetic variability is enhanced

See All Posts / Archives: