Intrusion of tooth is resisted by:

 # Intrusion of tooth is resisted by:
A. Apical and interradicular fibers
B. Oblique and horizontal fibers
C. Alveolar crest and oblique fibers
D. All Periodontal fibers

The correct answer is C. Alveolar crest and oblique fibers.

The principal fibers of periodontal ligament are arranged in six groups and are named according to their
location and direction of attachment. 

1. Transseptal group
Location: These fibers run into the interproximal space over the crest of alveolar bone and get inserted in the cementum of neighboring tooth.
Function: They have the innate capacity to reconstruct themselves in periodontal disease even there is destruction of the alveolar bone. This unique property of fibers is responsible for returning teeth to their original state after orthodontic therapy.

2. Alveolar crest group (apico-oblique)
Location: Cervical root to alveolar crest of alveolar bone proper
Function: Prevent extrusion and lateral tooth movements

3. Horizontal group
Location: Mid root to adjacent bone proper
Function: Resists horizontal forces

4. Oblique group (coronal-oblique)
Location: Apical one-third of root to adjacent bone proper
Function: Resists vertical masticatory stresses and convert them into tension on alveolar bone

5. Apical group
Location: Apex of root to fundic proper
Function: Prevent tooth tipping, resist luxation and protect neurovascular supply to the tooth

6. Interradicular group
Location: Between roots to alveolar bone proper
Function: Prevent luxation, torquing and tooth tipping

The Unsung Hero of Dentistry: Why Dental Practice Management Software is Essential

 The world of dentistry is a constant hustle. Between patient appointments, procedures, and administrative tasks, it's easy for crucial aspects of running a smooth practice to fall by the wayside. This is where dental practice management software (PMS) steps in as the unsung hero, streamlining operations and boosting efficiency.

Why is Dental Practice Management Important?

Imagine juggling appointment scheduling, billing, insurance verification, patient records, and inventory management – all manually. It would be a logistical nightmare. Dental practice management software automates these tasks, freeing up valuable time for dentists and staff to focus on what matters most: patient care.

Here's how a PMS empowers your practice:

  • Enhanced Patient Experience: Streamlined scheduling allows patients to book appointments online, reducing wait times and improving convenience. Electronic health records (EHR) ensure accurate and readily available patient information. Secure communication tools within the PMS facilitate appointment reminders and follow-up communication.
  • Improved Efficiency: Tasks like scheduling, billing, and insurance verification are automated, saving valuable time and reducing errors. Staff can focus on providing excellent patient care without getting bogged down in paperwork.
  • Boosted Revenue: Timely and accurate billing with integrated insurance processing ensures you get paid faster. Automated appointment reminders minimize missed appointments and lost revenue. Efficient inventory management helps avoid stockouts and unnecessary purchases.
  • Data-driven Decision Making: PMS software provides valuable reports and insights on practice performance. Analyze appointment trends, track patient demographics, and identify areas for improvement.
  • Compliance with Regulations: Secure storage of patient data and streamlined documentation processes help your practice stay compliant with HIPAA and other regulations.

Popular Dental Practice Management Software Options

With a plethora of PMS options available, choosing the right one for your practice depends on several factors, including practice size, budget, and specific needs. Here's a glimpse into some of the most commonly used dental practice management software solutions:

  • Dentrix: A comprehensive solution catering to practices of all sizes, Dentrix offers a robust set of features including scheduling, billing, charting, reporting, and patient engagement tools. It also integrates with various third-party applications.
  • Eaglesoft: Renowned for its user-friendliness and focus on clinical workflows, Eaglesoft streamlines patient charting, treatment planning, and practice management. It caters well to smaller and mid-sized practices.
  • CareStack: Cloud-based and scalable, CareStack offers a modern platform with a focus on patient engagement and practice analytics. It is particularly well-suited for practices looking for a flexible and customizable solution.
  • Open Dental: An open-source option gaining traction, Open Dental is a cost-effective solution that offers a decent feature set. However, it requires some technical expertise for setup and customization.
  • Dentiflow: Another cloud-based platform, Dentiflow caters specifically to dental practices. It offers modules for scheduling, charting, billing, and patient communication, along with features like online appointment booking and mobile app access.

Choosing the Right Dental PMS

Before diving in, consider these factors:

  • Practice Size and Needs: A solo practitioner might not require the same level of functionality as a large group practice. Identify your specific needs and budget accordingly.
  • Ease of Use: User-friendliness for both dentists and staff is crucial. Consider user interfaces, training options, and technical support offered by the software provider.
  • Scalability: Will your practice grow in the future? Choose software that scales with your needs.
  • Integration with Existing Systems: Ensure the PMS integrates seamlessly with your existing dental imaging software, EHR systems, and lab management tools.
  • Security: Data security is paramount. Look for HIPAA-compliant software with robust security features.

Investing in a Dental Practice Management Software is an investment in your practice's future. By automating tasks, improving efficiency, and boosting patient satisfaction, a PMS can be the key to unlocking the full potential of your dental practice.

The term which indicate teeth or other maxillary structures too low down in the face is called:

 # The term which indicate teeth or other maxillary structures too low down in the face is called:
A. Attraction
B. Abstraction
C. Distraction
D. Protraction

The correct answer is B. Abstraction.

When the dental arch is closer to the Frankfort plane than normal, it is called attraction. When the dental arch is farther from the Frankfort horizontal plane (i.e. lower than normal) it is called abstraction.

Torque prescription for maxillary central incisor according to MBT in degrees is:

 # Torque prescription for maxillary central incisor according to MBT in degrees is:
A. 17
B. 10
C. -7
D. 0

The correct answer is A. 17.

Torque in orthodontics refers to the buccopalatal crown-root inclination of a tooth. To implement torque, larger dimensional archwires are inserted and engaged into brackets. This generates an activating force as the wire is manipulated into the bracket slot. Torque is not directly “in the wire.” Instead, it results from torsion in an archwire when it interacts with a bracket slot. When the wire twists compared to the bracket slot, it creates a couple (a rotational force) that affects the tooth’s inclination. Torque is not related to the angle of the bracket slot or the axial inclination of the tooth. In orthodontic treatment, torque control is often required, especially for maxillary incisors. Proper torque helps achieve an ideal inter-incisal angle, adequate incisor contact, and sagittal adjustment of the dentition for an ideal occlusion. The goal is to achieve the desired buccopalatal inclination of the crowns and roots. The MBT system is a popular pre-adjusted edgewise appliance system.

In the MBT system, torque prescription is based on the specific bracket design and the desired tooth movement. Orthodontists select brackets with predetermined torque values to achieve the desired crown-root inclination. The torque values are typically printed on the bracket prescription chart provided by the manufacturer. According to MBT, torque prescription for maxillary central incisor in degrees is 17 degrees. 

Which cusp on a maxillary first molar has two ridges: one that forms part of a transverse ridge and the other that forms part of an oblique ridge?

 # Which cusp on a maxillary first molar has two ridges: one that forms part of a transverse ridge and the other that forms part of an oblique ridge?
a. Mesiobuccal
b. Mesiolingual
c. Distobuccal
d. Distolingual

The correct answer is B. Mesiolingual. 

The mesiolingual cusp has triangular ridge as well as buccal ridge as shown in the figure of right maxillary first molar. 

From which view are only two roots visible on a maxillary first molar?

 # From which view are only two roots visible on a maxillary first molar?
a. Mesial
b. Distal
c. Buccal
d. Lingual

The correct answer is A. Mesial.

On both the maxillary first and second molars from the mesial view, two roots can be seen: the lingual
root and the mesiobuccal root, which is considerably wider buccolingually than the hidden distobuccal root.  On the first maxillary molar, the convex buccal outline of the mesiobuccal root often extends a little buccal to the crown outline, but the apex of this root is in line with the tip of the mesiobuccal cusp.

The furcations are likely to be farthest away from the cervical portion of the tooth in which of the following teeth?

 # The furcations are likely to be farthest away from the cervical portion of the tooth in which of the following teeth?
A. Mandibular first molar
B. Mandibular second molar
C. Mandibular third molar
D. Maxillary first molar

The correct answer is C. Mandibular third molar. 

Both maxillary and mandibular third molar roots are noticeably shorter than on firsts or seconds. They are very crooked, often curving distally, and more commonly fused most of their length resulting in a long root trunk with the furcation located only a short distance from the apices of the roots.