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Meat of Polar Bear may cause:

 # A man during his visit to the Arctic ocean happened to eat meat of polar bear. He suffered from intense headache, drowsiness and vomiting. This is most likely due to:
A. Cold diarrhea
B. Vitamin A toxicity
C. Food allergy
D. Vitamin K toxicity


The correct answer is B. Vitamin A toxicity.

Acute poisoning has been described after consumption of polar bear liver which contains 30,000 IU/g vit A. Single massive ingestion (> 1 million IU) produces intense headache, drowsiness, irritability, rise in intracranial tension, vomiting, liver enlargement and shedding of skin. Due to saturation of RBP, excess retinol esters circulate in the free state or loosely associated with lipoprotein. These have surfactant property which damages tissues.

Treatment consists of stopping further ingestion, supportive measures, and vit E which promotes storage of retinol in tissues and speeds recovery. Most signs regress in a week, some persist for months. Excess intake of carotenoids does not produce hypervitaminosis A, because conversion to retinol has a ceiling.


Number of point angles in class 3 cavity preparation is:

 # Number of point angles in class 3 cavity preparation is:
A. 4
B. 5
C. 3
D. 11



The correct answer is C. 3.

The three point angles are: 
i) Incisal Point Angle
ii) Axiofaciogingival point angle, and 
iii) Axiogingivolingual point angle.




Removal of deep, pulp encroaching caries should be made using:

 # Removal of deep, pulp encroaching caries should be made using:
A. High rotational speeds
B. Low rotational speeds
C. Very high rotational speeds
D. All of the above



The correct answer is B. Low rotational speeds.

In deep carious lesion, wider dentinal tubules are present.(so sensitivity is more, which can be prevented by using coolants during cavity preparation, slow speed of instrument, biocompatible restorative material with suitable base).

The average length of maxillary cuspid is:

 # The average length of maxillary cuspid is:
A. 26 mm
B. 33 mm
C. 21 mm
D. 18 mm



The correct answer is: A. 26 mm.





The average crown length of maxillary permanent canine is 10 mm and average root length is 17 mm. Hence, the average length of permanent maxillary canine is 27 mm.

Best radiographic technique for demonstration of internal derangements of the TMJ

 # The best radiographic technique for demonstration of internal derangements of the TMJ is:
A. MRI
B. CT scan
C. Arthrography
D. Conventional radiographs


The correct answer is A. MRI. 

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT and PET scans. MRI is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications, such as NMR spectroscopy.

MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging and follow-up of disease. Compared to CT, MRI provides better contrast in images of soft-tissues, e.g. in the brain or abdomen. However, it may be perceived as less comfortable by patients, due to the usually longer and louder measurements with the subject in a long, confining tube. Additionally, implants and other non-removable metal in the body can pose a risk and may exclude some patients from undergoing an MRI examination safely.

MRI: Distinguishes blood vessels and nerves from surrounding soft tissues.
MRI should not be used in patients with cardiac pacemakers, metallic restorations, and ortho-appliance

Internal derangement of TMJ can be best diagnosed by MRI.


Orthodontist's Tips on How to Get Relief From Dental Pain due to Braces

Six Simple & Effective Tips on How to Get Relief From Braces Pain

Are you afraid of the braces pain coming your way? First of all, congratulations on taking the first steps towards a perfect bite and smile! As far as braces pain is concerned, there are a lot of unnecessary misconceptions around it.

Getting orthodontic braces on your teeth is worth the effort, but you are likely to experience pain and discomfort right after you put the braces on for the first time or when you get your braces tightened. But it goes away after you get used to wearing them. And there are ways to get rid of braces pain to help you through it.

6 Tips to Reduce Braces Pain

Here are the 6 ways to get relief from braces pain that your orthodontist will agree with!

  1. Eat & Drink Cold Stuff

Braces are a blessing in disguise for the fans of cold foods & drinks. Eat as many ice creams and popsicles as you can. Cold foods and drinks work as numbing agents to ease the discomfort due to braces. They also reduce inflammation. You can also apply an ice pack, drink ice-cold water, or suck on an ice cube for relief.

  1. Apply Heat

Extreme heat is also your friend to get relief from braces pain and soreness. You can apply a heating pad against your jaw as often as possible. Apply it from inside or outside according to your comfort. A warm washcloth also does the trick in the absence of a heating pad.



  1. Maintain Oral Hygiene

It’s crucial to maintain good oral hygiene to reduce the pain and discomfort of braces. You don’t want tooth decay or gum inflammation to hamper your braces treatment or aggravate your pain.

Therefore always follow the dental hygiene routine of brushing and flossing after every meal. This will help eliminate morsels stuck in the brackets and wires after eating.

  1. Ditch the Hard Foods for Soft Foods

Eating soft food and avoiding hard food is one of the essential tips to reduce braces pain. Your teeth and gums become sensitive because of the tightening of the braces.

You don’t want to add up the trouble by chewing hard and crunchy foods like pretzels, hard fruits, etc. Eat soft foods only like smoothies, bananas, mashed potatoes, etc.

  1. Apply Numbing Agent

Your orthodontist may prescribe you some general pain medication like ibuprofen. If those are not working, you can try the OTC oral numbing agents. You can take any good brand suggested by the pharmacist. These numbing agents are to be swished around the mouth. You can also apply them topically to the specific troubling area.

  1. Massage Your Gums

A gum massage is immensely soothing when you are struggling with soreness. To massage your gums, gently rub your fingers on the affected area. It is one of the best relaxing ways to get rid of braces pain. Therefore the drooling because of the gum massage won’t matter much. Gum massage is as soothing as a foot or shoulder massage if you are on braces.

Parting Words

Braces pain and discomfort are only for a few days. But the bite correction and smile beautification you get is forever! So it’s a small price to pay. And now you are equipped with multiple remedies to get relief from braces pain. So sail through your treatment duration with patience and a bright smile.

Author Bio:

Dr. Satish Pai is an orthodontist and Ivy League trained dentist who has served as a faculty at Columbia University. He believes a perfect smile not only makes a person look great but feel great. As the founder of Putnam Orthodontics and a Partner at Brite Orthodontics, he is dedicated to providing the best orthodontic treatments to his patients. He also writes to educate people about everything orthodontics and the importance of correctly aligned teeth along with good oral health. In his free time, you can find him golfing, doing yoga or surfing, and spending time with his family.


A patient of head injury should be carried in ________ position.

 # A patient of head injury should be carried in ________ position.
A. Prone
B. Supine
C. Lateral
D. Sitting


The correct answer is C. Lateral.

Patients with head injury should be carried in semiprone position and never on their back. This prevents the accumulation of blood and secretions and pulls the tongue forward in semi or unconscious patients.

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