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Phlegmon is a: PGCEE MDS 2022

 # Phlegmon is a:
a) Sexually transmitted disease
b) Type of cellulitis
c) Type of osteomyelitis 
d) Venereal disease





The correct answer is B. Type of  cellulitis.

Cellulitis or Phlegmon is a diffuse inflammation of soft tissues that\ is not circumscribed or confined to one area, but which, contrary to the abscess, tends to spread through tissue spaces and along fascial planes. This type of reaction occurs due to infection by microorganisms that produce significant amounts of streptokinase, hyaluronidase (the spreading factor of Duran-Reynolds) and fibrinolysins, which act to breakdown or dissolve hyaluronic acid, the universal intercellular cement substance, and fibrin. Streptococci are particularly potent producers of hyaluronidase and are therefore a common causative organism in cases of cellulitis. Streptococci in their growth phase consume local oxygen and metabolize nutrients to produce an acidic environment, which is conducive to the subsequent growth of anaerobic microbes. The anaerobes such as Prevotella and Porphyromonas species destroy collagen.

PGCEE MDS 2022: Hesitation cuts are seen in a case of:

 # Hesitation cuts are seen in a case of:
A. Homicide 
B. Suicide
C. Accident 
D. Fall from height


The correct answer is B. Suicide.

Hesitation cuts/marks or tentative cuts or trial wounds: These cuts are multiple, small, and superficial often involving only the skin, and are seen at the beginning of the incised wound, presumably hesitating while gaining the courage to make a final decisive cut.

- A person who commits suicide exposes his body by opening his clothes and then inflicts the wounds.

- When a safety razor blade is used, unintentional cuts are found on the fingers where the blade has been gripped.

- Most people have a vague knowledge of anatomy and do not know where to cut a major blood vessel, and may cut their forearms vertically, rather than horizontally.

PGCEE MDS 2022: Radiographic investigation for multiple implant screening is:

 # Radiographic investigation for multiple implant screening is: 
A. Intraoral periapical radiograph
B. Panoramic radiograph
C. CBCT
D. Magnetic resonance imaging


The correct answer is B. Panoramic radiograph.

The primary advantage of the panoramic radiograph is that it is a screening tool to evaluate for pathology within the hard tissues. It may also be beneficial to ensure that root tips and other structures are not in the surgical site. As a general rule, sinus pathology is difficult to observe on this film, and other tools are usually necessary (e.g., CT scans).

When the 25% average magnification is accounted for on the film, it may categorize the patient into three different groups:
(1) there is obviously enough vertical bone to place and implant,
(2) there is obviously not enough vertical bone to place an implant, or 
(3) the amount of vertical bone necessary to place an implant is not obvious.

Advantages of panoramic radiograph
• Easy identification of opposing landmarks
• Initial assessment of vertical height of bone
• Convenience, ease, and speed in performance in most dental offices
• Evaluation of gross anatomy of the jaws and any related pathologic findings*


Limitations
• Distortions inherent in the panoramic system
• Errors in patient positioning
• Does not demonstrate bone quality
• Misleading measurements because of magnification and no third dimension
• No spatial relationship between structures

PGCEE MDS 2022: Most common mode of transmission in nosocomial infections is by:

 # Most common mode of transmission in nosocomial infections is by:
A. Contact transmission
B. Droplet transmission
C. Airborne transmission
D. Vector borne transmission




The correct answer is A. Contact transmission.

A hospital-acquired infection, also known as a nosocomial infection (from the Greek nosokomeion, meaning "hospital"), is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a healthcare–associated infection. Such an infection can be acquired in hospital, nursing home, rehabilitation facility, outpatient clinic, diagnostic laboratory or other clinical settings. 

Main Roots of Transmission

I) Contact Transmission: The most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections is by direct contact.

II) Droplet transmission: Transmission occurs when droplets containing microbes from the infected person are propelled a short distance through the air and deposited on the patient's body; droplets are generated from the source person mainly by coughing, sneezing, and talking, and during the performance of certain procedures, such as bronchoscopy.

III) Airborne transmission: Dissemination can be either airborne droplet nuclei (small-particle residue {5 ┬Ám or smaller in size} of evaporated droplets containing microorganisms that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time) or dust particles containing the infectious agent. Microorganisms carried in this manner can be dispersed widely by air currents and may become inhaled by a susceptible host within the same room or over a longer distance from the source patient, depending on environmental factors; therefore, special air-handling and ventilation are required to prevent airborne transmission. Microorganisms transmitted by airborne transmission include Legionella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the rubeola and varicella viruses.

IV) Common vehicle transmission: This applies to microorganisms transmitted to the host by contaminated items, such as food, water, medications, devices, and equipment.

V) Vector borne transmission: This occurs when vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, rats, and other vermin transmit microorganisms.

PGCEE MDS 2022: Provision for good housing conditions comes under:

 # Provision for good housing conditions comes under:
A. Rehabilitation
B. Specific protection
C. Disability limitation
D. Health promotion


The correct answer is D. Health Promotion.

The relation between the residential environment and health is multidimensional and complex. It is possible not only to determine whether housing promotes or hinders health and quality of life, but also how the health of an individual can influence her/his housing conditions. Housing conditions, and homelessness in particular, are key components in the chain of explanatory factors linking poverty and inequality to health status. Housing is an important determinant of quality of life. It can influence health promotion. The multiple components of housing units and their surroundings need to be considered in terms of their potential and effective contribution to the physical, social and mental well-being.

PGCEE MDS 2022: Punched out lesions on the alveolar ridge is due to:

 # Punched out lesions on the alveolar ridge is due to:
a) acrylic nodules on tissue facing surface of denture
b) disturbed occlusion
c) overextended borders of denture
d) narrow occlusal table



The correct answer is A. Acrylic nodules on tissue facing surface of denture.

Acrylic nodules and spicules: These are produced by acrylic resin being processed into indentations or porosity in the cast. These areas of roughness can be detected by observation of the dried denture surface and by passing a gauze napkin or cotton wool roll over the surface so that the threads catch on the offending areas. They should be carefully removed with a stone without modifying the fit of the denture. Acrylic nodules on tissue facing surface of denture cause punched out lesions on the alveolar ridge or mucosa.

Mixed dentition growth spurt for boys occurs at the age of: PGCEE MDS 2022

 # Mixed dentition growth spurt for boys occurs at the age of:
A. 8-11 years
B. 7-9 years
C. 14-16 years
D. 11-13 years


The correct answer is A. 8-11 years.

Growth spurts do not take place uniformly at all times. The periods of sudden acceleration of growth spurts are known as growth spurts.

The following are the timings of growth spurts:
• Just before birth.
• One year after birth.
• Mixed dentition growth spurt
- Boys : 8-11 years
- Girls : 7-9 years
• Adolescent growth spurt
- Boys : 14-16 years
- Girls : 11-13 years