Oxygen Dissociation Curve

# At higher CO2 concentration, oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin will:
A. Move to left
B. Move to right
C. Become irregular
D. Move upwardly

The correct answer is B. Move to right

Right shift of the curve (decreased affinity of Hb for Oxygen) is caused by the following factors:
- High PCO2
- Low blood pH
- High body temperature
- Increased level of 2,3 DPG (Diphosphorylglycerate or biphosphoglycerate)

Pneumotaxic center is present in:

# Pneumotaxic center related to respiration is located in:
A. Crura Cerebri
B. Medulla Oblongata
C. Pons Varoli
D. Parietal lobe

The correct answer is C. Pons varoli. 

Sterilizing Semi critical items

# In reference to the Spaulding Classification System for contaminated items, semi critical items should be reprocessed by:
A. Immersion in a tuberculocidal disinfectant
B. Heat sterilization if the material is heat stable
C. Washing with a chlorhexidine gluconate solution
D. A spray-wipe-spray technique

The correct answer is B. heat sterilization if the material is heat stable.

Semi critical items are defined as instruments that do not penetrate soft tissues or bone but are used inside the mouth and contact the mucosa.

These instruments must be sterilized after every use or must undergo high level disinfection if they are not heat stable.

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