Physiology MCQs - Endocrinology - Multiple Choice Questions

# If a chemical agent is produced by a cell and if the agent acts on the same cell, the effect is termed as:
A. Endocrine effect
B. Paracrine effect
C. Autocrine effect
D. None of the above

# All of the following are autocoids except:
A. Histamine
B. Eicosanoids
C. Serotonin
D. Insulin

# The following is believed to be a second hormonal messenger in many tissues.
A. Cyclic AMP
B. Prostaglandins
C. Calcium ions
D. Adenyl cyclase

# Drug receptors for steroids are present in the:
A. Nuclear chromatin
B. Cell membrane
C. Cytoplasm
D. Nucleus

# Nuclear receptors that act as transcription factors are absent for which of the following?
A. Insulin
B. Glucocorticoids
C. Vitamin D
D. Oestrogen

# All of the following hormones use cyclic AMP as second messenger EXCEPT:
C. Adrenaline
D. Oestrogen

# Which of the following is not a glycoprotein?
C. Human chorionic gonadotropin
D. Prolactin

# Which of the following hormones is not a polypeptide?
A. Corticotropin
B. Leutotropic
C. Insulin
D. Glucagon

# The hormone thyrotropin is a:
A. Protein
B. Glycoprotein
C. Polypeptide
D. Steroid

# Which of the following pairs chemically resemble each other?
A. Thyroid hormones and adrenaline
B. Insulin and glucagon
C. Vasopressin and oxytocin
D. All of the above

# Which of the following hormones secretes less at night?
B. Insulin
D. Melatonin

# Which of the following is secreted by acidophils of anterior pituitary?
A. Growth hormone

# Polypeptides produced by adenohypophysis are:
A. FSH and LH
C. Growth hormone and luteotropin
D. TSH and Human chorionic gonadotropin

# The tropic hormone releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus are transported into the anterior pituitary through:
A. Hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal tract
B. Peripheral circulatory system
C. The ducts that transport neurohypophysis
D. All of the above

# All of the hormones secreted from pituitary have direct stimulatory effect from hypothalamus except _____ hormone.
D. Prolactin

# Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones is primarily under the inhibitory control of hypothalamus?
C. Somatostatin
D. Prolactin

# The supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus is believed to control secretion of which of the following hormones?
A. ADH and aldosterone
B. ADH and oxytocin
C. Oxytocin and aldosterone
D. Aldosterone and angiotensin

# Endocrine glands that are not influenced by the pituitary gland include:
A. Thyroid gland, testes and adrenal medulla
B. Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and adrenal medulla
C. Parathyroids and posterior pituitary
D. Parathyroid and thyroid

# Endocrine glands directly under the control of nervous system are:
A. Adrenal cortex and thyroid
B. Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and adrenal medulla
C. Parathyroids and posterior pituitary
D. Parathyroid and thyroid

# Growth hormone is also called as:
A. Somatostatin
B. Somatomedin
C. Somatocrinin
D. Somatotropin

# Which of the following statements about the action of the somatomedin is true?
A. They inhibit protein synthesis
B. They antagonize the effect of insulin
C. They promote growth of bone and cartilage
D. They mediate the local effects of somatostatin

# Which of the following are functions of somatotropin?
A. Increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle
B. Increased production of free fatty acids by stimulating lipase enzyme system
C. Anabolic effect on proteins
D. All of the above

# Excessive production of growth hormone results in:
A. Gigantism in children
B. Acromegaly in adults
C. Increased blood glucose levels
D. All of the above

# Which of the following inhibits the growth hormone secretion?
A. Insulin and ACTH
B. Insulin and thyroxine
C. Oestrogen and corticosteroids
D. Oestrogen and ACTH

# Which of the following hormones is not involved in the process of growth?
A. Oxytocin
B. Somatotropins
C. Thyroid hormone
D. Estrogen

# Endocrine disorder is the primary cause of :
A. Acromegaly
B. Albright's syndrome
C. Paget's Disease
D. Fibrous disease

# Diabetes insipidus is due to:
A. Destruction of posterior pituitary
B. Destruction of anterior pituitary
C. Destruction of adrenal gland
D. Destruction of hypothalamus

# The blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus is decreased by removal of the:
A. Thyroid
B. Parathyroids
C. Anterior pituitary
D. Posterior pituitary

# Function of ADH is:
A. Water reabsorption
B. Water excretion
C. Na+ absorption
D. K+ secretion

# The hormone which stimulates uterus contraction and lets down milk is:
A. Progesterone
B. Prolactin
C. Prostaglandin
D. Oxytocin

# The main stimulation for production of ADH is:
A. Increase in plasma potassium
B. Decrease in blood volume
C. Increase in extracellular fluid
D. Decrease in extracellular osmotic pressure

# Oxytocin causes all except:
A. Lactogenesis
B. Milk ejection
C. Contraction of uterine muscle
D. Myoepithelial cell contraction

# The hormone which increases basal metabolic rate is:
A. Insulin
B. Estrogen
C. Glucagon
D. Thyroxine

# Which of the following is the major secretory product of the thyroid gland?
A. Thyroglobulin
B. Thyroxine
C. Tetraiodothyronine
D. Calcitonin

# Storage form of thyroid hormones is:
A. T4
B. T3
C. Thyroglobulin
D. All of the above

# Iodine is primarily important in the biochemical synthesis of:
B. Thyroxine
C. Adrenaline
D. Calcitonin

# Minimum daily requirement of iodine necessary for maintaining normal thyroid function in adults is:
A. 50-100 microgram
B. 100-150 microgram
C. 150-200 microgram
D. 200-250 microgram

# Which of the following ions inhibit iodide trapping?
A. Thiocyanate
B. Perchlorate
C. Nitrate ions
D. All of the above

# The most potent thyroid hormmone is:
A. T4
B. T3
C. T2
D. T1

# Which of the following is not the function of the thyroid gland?
A. It maintains the optimal level of metabolism in various tissues
B. Thyroxine stimulates the CO2 consumption of most of the cells in the body
C. It helps in the regulation of lipid and carbphydrate metabolism
D. It is necessary for normal

# Thyroid secretion is increased by:
A. High serum iodine concentration
B. Exogenous thyroid hormone
C. Prolonged exposure to cold
D. Propylthiouracil

# Which of the following forms of thyroid hormone is involved in negative feedback inhibition of pituitary TSH?
A. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) bound thyroxine
B. Thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) bound thyroxine
C. Albumin bound thyroxine
D. Free form of thyroxine

# Which of the following are features of hyperthyroidism?
A. Increased oxygen consumption
B. Positive nitrogen balance
C. Increased iodine uptake by thyroid
D. All of the above

# All of the following regarding myxoedema are true except:
A. Swollen, oedematous look of the face
B. Impotency, amenorrhoea
C. BMR increased by 30-50%
D. Dullness, loss of memory

# A child with stunted growth with a stuffed belly, and short stature and mental retardation is suffering from the deficiency of which of the following?
A. Thyroxine
B. Growth hormone
C. Calcium
D. Parathyroid

# Features of hypothyroidism do not include:
A. Obesity
B. Hypertension
C. High TSH levels
D. Increased risk of infections

# Which of the following regarding pancreatic secretions is true?
A. Insulin - Beta cells
B. Glucagon - alpha cells
C. Somatostatin - Delta cella
D. All of the above

# Which of the following is a paracrine effect in pancreas?
A. Inhibition of somatostatin secretion by insulin
B. Inhibition of insulin secretion by glucagon
C. Stimulation of secretion of somatostatin by glucagon
D. Stimulation of glucagon secretion by insulin

# In patients receiving exogenous insulin which of the following serves as an index of endogenous beta cell function?
A. The level of a-peptide
B. The level of b-peptide
C. The level of c-peptide
D. The level of d-peptide

# Which of the following metallic ions is required for synthesis of insulin?
A. Mn++
B. Mg++
C. Ca++
D. Zn++

# Which of the following hormones cannot be given orally?
A. Insulin and parathormone
B. Testosterone and thyroxine
C. Insulin and thyroxine
D. Parathormone testosterone

# Which of the following pairs have opposite action?
A. Glucagon and insulin on blood sugar levels
B. Calcitonin and parathormone on blood calcium levels
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

# All of the following are true of insulin EXCEPT:
A. It is a glycopeptide
B. Secreted by beta cells
C. Causes lipogenesis
D. Promotes glycogenesis

# Which of the following is not an effect of insulin?
A. Decreased gluconeogenesis
B. Increased glycogenolysis
C. Increased transportation of glucose into cells
D. Induction of lipoprotein lipase

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