MCQs on Periodontology - Periodontal Diseases Part 1

# Most common periodontal disease is:
A. Gingivitis
B. Periodontitis
C. Gingival hypertrophy
D. Juvenile periodontitis 


# Gingivitis is initiated most frequently by:
A. Occlusal trauma
B. Systemic factors
C. Local irritating factors
D. Hormonal defects

# Systemic factors are important in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease because they can:
A. be the direct cause of periodontal disease
B. have direct effect on the pocket depth
C. Usually determine the pattern of bone loss
D. Intensify the response of the periodontium to the aetiologic and local factors

# Which of the following may not be considered as a predisposing factor to gingivitis?
A. Hormonal fluctuations
B. Gingival enlargement
C. TMJ disorders
D. Nutritional deficiencies

# Which of the following is most common in school children?
A. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
C. Gingivitis
D. Juvenile periodontitis

# Which of the following acute infections is contagious?
A. Acute gingival abscess
B. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
C. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis
D. Acute pericoronitis

# Which of the following soft tissue responses may occur as a reaction to orthodontic bands?
A. Gingivitis
B. Gingival fibrosis
C. Ulcerative gingivitis
D. Fulminating periodontitis

# Life saver shaped gingival enlargement of marginal gingiva is called:
A. Stillman's cleft
B. McCall's festoons
C. Widow peaks
D. Craters

# McCall's festoons are common in:
A. Incisor area
B. Canine and Premolar area
C. Molar area
D. Same in all of the above

# McCall's festoons are:
A. Normal physiological process
B. Due to poor oral hygiene and food lodgement
C. Congenital abnormality and familial
D. Due to trauma from occlusion and inflammation

# Apostrophe shaped area:
A. Stillman's cleft
B. McCall's festoon
C. Gingival sulcus
D. None of the above

# Facial surface of which tooth is most affected by gingivitis?
A. Upper first molar
B. Lower first molar
C. Lower central incisor
D. Lower premolar

# Radiographs in gingivitis show:
A. Loss of alveolar bone
B. Pocket formation
C. Change in bone trabeculation pattern
D. No significant changes from normal

# Area to be affected first in gingivitis is:
A. Attached gingiva
B. Facial marginal gingiva
C. Lingual marginal gingiva
D. Interdental papilla

# Four stages in progression of disease are:
A. Initial, early, established, advanced
B. Incipient, Initial, established, advanced
C. Early, established, Initial, Advanced
D. Initial, Established, Early, Advanced

# Gingivitis:
A. Always results in periodontitis
B. has characteristic radiographic findings
C. is characterised by loss of epithelial attachment
D. Is reversible lesion

# Initial lesion of gingivitis is Characterised by:
A. Developing 2-3 days after neglected oral hygiene
B. Domination of polymorphonuclear lymphocytes
C. its reversibility
D. all of the above

# Early lesion of gingivitis is characterized by all of the following except:
A. Dominated by lymphocytes
B. Destruction of collagen fibres
C. Irreversible nature
D. Developing one week after no oral hygiene

# First clinical sign of gingivitis appear in which stage:
A. Initial or stage I
B. Early or stage II
C. Established or stage III
D. Advanced stage

# Which stage of gingivitis is also called subclinical gingivitis?
A. Initial stage
B. Advanced stage
C. Early stage
D. Established stage

# Early and established stage of gingivitis is differentiated by increase in number of:
A. Macrophages
B. Neutrophil
C. Plasma cells
D. T cells

# Which of the following stages of gingivitis characterizes periodontal breakdown?
A. Initial lesion
B. Early lesion
C. Advanced lesion
D. Estanlished lesion

# In gingivitis, the role of immunoglobulins is consistent with increased number of:
A. Fibroblasts
B. Neutrophils
C. Lymphocytes
D. Plasma cells

# Most objective clinical sign of gingivitis is:
A. Increased sulcular fluid
B. Increased redness of gingiva
C. Increased polymorphonuclear leukocytes
D. Bleeding on probing

# Bleeding on probing will tell us the:
A. Gingival health of a child
B. Status of gingival health on the day of examination
C. 7 days after prophylaxis
D. 14 days after prophylaxis

# An inflammation progresses content of mucopolysaccharides and acid phosphatase in the tissue:
A. Both increase
B. Both decrease
C. Increase in acid phosphatase and decrease in mucopolysaccharides
D. Decrease in acid phosphatase and increase in mucopolysaccharides

# Pathologic granules are seen in:
A. Lateral wall of pocket
B. Base of pocket
C. Root surface wall of pocket
D. Connective tissue of pocket

# Histological changes in chronic gingivitis is characterized by:
A. Degeneration of fibres, infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes
B. Oedematous infiltration of connective tissue with no cellular infiltration
C. Elongation of rete pegs with localised abscess formation
D. Degradation of fibres, infiltration of PMN predominance

# The most common sequel of gingivitis:
A. Pericoronitis
B. Periodontitis
C. Periodontosis
D. Periapical pathology

# Inflammation of gingiva in relation to crown of incompletely erupted teeth is termed as:
A. Periodontitis
B. Pericoronitis
C. Gingivosis
D. Aggressive periodontitis

# A female patient of age 28 years came to clinic with a chief complaint of pain in the lower right back tooth region since 1 week. Intraoral examination depicts the above condition with 7 mm pocket distal to 48. Provisional diagnosis of the above condition is:
A. Pericoronitis
B. Acute Gingivitis
C. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
D. Chronic periodontitis

# Gingival recession is most common due to:
A. Tooth brush trauma
C. Defective contacts

# Isolated recession on a single tooth may be commonly seen in:
A. Labially prominent canines
B. Vigorous toothbrushing
C. Occlusal trauma
D. All of the above

# Gingival recession is:
A. More common on labial than lingual side
B. More common in children compared to adults
C. Always results from orthodontic tooth movement
D. Always results from high frenal attachment

# Gingival recession occurs at the expense of:
A. Cementum
B. Periodontal ligament
C. Gingiva
D. Alveolar bone

# Age related gingival recession can be best treated by:
A. Gingivoplasty
B. Pedicle graft
C. Free gingival graft
D. No treatment

# When periodontal probing in gingivitis is done, depth is measured from:
A. Base of pocket to CEJ
B. Base of pocket to free gingival margin
C. Marginal gingiva to CEJ
D. Junctional epithelium to free gingival margin

# The depth of clinical gingival sulcus is the distance between the gingival margin to the:
A. Cementoenamel junction
B. Alveolar crest
C. Apical extension of junctional epithelium
D. Apical penetration of the probe

# Depth of penetration of probe depends upon:
A. Width of the probe
B. Resistance of tissues
C. Convexity of tooth
D. All of the above

# Width of attached gingiva is measured:
A. From crest of marginal gingiva to mucogingival junction
B. From gingival margin to base of sulcus
C. From base of sulcus to mucogingival junction
D. CEJ to the mucogingival junction

# Identify the correct statement regarding stippling:
A. Its presence always indicates lack of inflammation
B. Its absence always indicates presence of inflammation
C. Stippling cannot be used as a diagnostic sign of gingival inf
D. Lack of stippling may be considered to be a sign of inflammation if it is known to be present previously

# Which of the following is not influenced by systemic disease:
A. Periodontitis
B. Destructive periodontitis
C. Hereditary fibromatosis gingivitis
D. Choronic gingivitis

# Histopathology criteria used to distinguish gingivitis from periodontits
A. Occlusal trauma
B. Resorption
C. Endosteal proliferation
D. Howship's lacunae

# The most reliable index for determining the presence of active periodontal disease is:
A. Halitosis
B. Bleeding on probing
C. Pocket formation
D. Gingival recession

# Which one of the following is not associated with chronic gingivitis?
A. Suppuration
B. Bleeding on probing
C. Pain
D. Swollen gingiva

# Radiographs are of great value in diagnosing periodontal disease because they reveal:
A. Hard to soft tissue relationship
B. Morphology of bone deformities
C. Presence of pockets
D. Thickening of the lamina dura

# Radiographs as a diagnostic aid in periodontal disease are:
A. Specific
B. Sensitive
C. Both sensitive and specific
D. Having a high predictive value

# Gingival swelling most commonly:
A. Causes increase in stippling of attached gingiva
B. Results from inflammatory oedema
C. Associated with gingival recession
D. Results from tetracycline therapy

# Hyperplastic gingiva is found in all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
A. Chronic inflammation
B. Nifedipine therapy
C. Hereditary fibromatosis
D. Faulty toothbrushing

# The conditioned gingival enlargement :
A. Requires presence of local irritants
B. Exacerbates existing inflammation
C. Pregnancy and puberty are the examples
D. All of the above

# Conditional gingival enlargement is usually not associated with:
A. Hormonal
B. Leukemic
C. Granuloma pyogenicum
D. Drug induced

# Boggy gums are seen in:
A. Pregnancy
B. Leukemia
C. Polycythemia
D. Only A and B

# Gingival manifestation is seen maximum with:

# Gingival swelling in chronic myelocytic leukemia is:
A. Uncommon in children
B. Result of leukemic cell infiltration of the gingiva
C. Associated with spontaneous bleeding, boggy gums
D. All of the above

# The gingival enlargements in leukemia mainly result from:
A. An inflammatory reaction to plaque
B. Leukemic cellular infiltration of gingiva
C. Hormonal disturbances
D. Developmental in origin

# Gingivitis in leukemic patient resemble:
A. Pyogenic granuloma
B. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
C. Hairy cell leukoplakia

# Drugs associated with gingival changes are:
A. Phenytoin, Cyclosporine and Nifedipine
B. Nifedipine, Ibuprofen and Lignocaine
C. Cyclosporine, Chlorine and Iodine
D. Phenytoin, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide and paracetamol

# Drug induced hyperplasia of gingiva is mainly seen in:
A. Marginal Gingiva
B. Attached Gingiva
C. Palatal gingiva
D. Interdental gingiva

# Condition not associated with primary inflammation is:
A. Pregnancy
B. Dilantin therapy
C. Vit C deficiency
D. Puberty

# Cyclosporine enlargement of gingiva can be classified as:
A. Non inflammatory
B. Inflammatory
C. Developmental
D. Malignant

# Gingival enlargement can be expected in all of the following patients EXCEPT:
A. An epileptic patient
B. A patient who has undergone renal transplantation
C. A patient with COPD
D. Patient on hypertensive therapy

# Dilantin hyperplasia is treated with:
A. Gingivectomy
B. Gingivoplasty
C. Apically repositioned flap
D. Curettage

# Compared to phenytoin enlargements, familial gingival enlargements:
A. Involve only interdental and marginal gingiva
B. Are common in old age group
C. There is increase in collagen degradation
D. Either one of the jaws is affected

# Diffuse gingivitis includes:
A. Marginal gingiva
B. Marginal and papillary gingiva
C. Marginal, Papillary and Attached gingiva
D. Marginal, Papillary attached and alveolar gingiva

# Based on Bokencamp's grading of enlargements, an enlargement covering 3/4th of the crown is considered as:
A. Grade I
B. Grade II
C. Grade III
D. Grade IV

# Acute gingival enlargement is seen in:
C. Pregnancy
D. Hereditary fibromatosis

# The causative factor in pregnancy gingivitis is:
A. Hormonal imbalance with pregnancy
B. Microbial flora asoociated with plaque
C. Vit C deficiency during pregnancy
D. All of the above

# Changes in the gingiva during pregnancy are attributed to:
A. Changes in the hormonal level
B. Altered microorganisms
C. Altered immunological response level
D. All of the above

# Which of the following hormones increases the vascular permeability of gingival tissues and increases chances of gingival disease caused by infective microorganisms?
A. Progesterone
B. Estrogen
C. Oxytocin
D. Human chorionic gonadotropin

# Etiology of gingival response due to increased progesterone and estrogen are all EXCEPT:
A. Decreased breakdown of folate
B. Presence of bacteroids melanogenicus
C. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis
D. Decreased keratinization

# Primary osteoporosis is mainly attributed to:
A. Diabetes
B. Malnutrition
C. Smoking
D. Menopausal changes

# Which of the following is painless?
A. Vitamin C deficiency gingivitis
B. Desquamative gingivitis
C. Pregnancy tumor
D. Gingival abscess

# Gingival enlargement in pregnancy is termed as:
A. Periodontal abscess
B. Angiogranuloma
C. Gingival abscess
D. Wegener's granulomatosis

# Localised gingival hypertrophy results from:
A. Hormonal imbalance in the presence of plaque
B. Dilantin sodium therapy for 3 months
C. Toothbrush trauma
D. Vit C deficiency

# Incidence of gingivitis in pregnancy is:
A. 10-20%
B. 20-30%
C. 40-50%
D. 50-100%

# Maximum increase in pregnancy gingivitis occurs in:
A. 2nd month
B. 3rd month
C. 5th month
D. 8th month

# Which type of gingival enlargement is seen in puberty?
A. Interdental papillae appear bulbous but facial gingiva is not affected
B. Interdental papillae and facial gingiva both are enlarged
C. Interdental gingiva, marginal gingiva and attached gingiva all are enlarged
D. Both marginal gingiva and attached gingiva are enlarged

# Puberty gingivitis is:
A. Seen only in females
B. Seen only in males
C. Seen in both sexes at puberty
D. Mainly due to hormonal changes

# 'Tuberous sclerosis' is seen in:
A. Vascular fibroma
B. Leprosy
C. Tuberculosis
D. Bone disorders

# Pyogenic granuloma:
A. Bleeds on touch
B. Is painless
C. Is soft in consistency
D. All of the above

# Local irritating factors in gingiva are most likely to give rise to:
A. Pyogenic granuloma
B. Generalized fibrous hyperplasia of gingiva
C. Mucosal cobblestoning
D. Periapical abscess

# A young adult shows non fluctuant, tender and red swelling in the marginal gingival lesion. This is most likely:
A. Periodontal abscess
B. Periapical abscess
C. Gingival abscess
D. Periapical sinus

# Plasma cell gingivitis is seen in individuals having the habit of chewing of the following types of flavoured chewing gum?
A. Peppermint flavoured
B. Clove flavored
C. Cinnamon flavored
D. Banana flavored

# Signs and symptoms are most obscure to reacha diagnosis, if the periodontium has undergone:
A. Degenerative changes
B. Proliferative changes
C. Inflammatory changes
D. Traumatic changes

# Which of the following is commonly seen in preschool children?
B. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
C. Juvenile periodontitis
D. Desquamative gingivitis

# Site specific characteristic in oral cavity is not seen in which disease?
A. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
C. Diphtheria
D. Desquamative gingivitis

# Definite treatment for herpetic gingivostomatitis:
A. Penicillin therapy
B. Hydrogen peroxide mouth wash
C. Steroid therapy
D. No definite treatment

# In which of the following conditions is the role of microbial plaque most obscure?
A. Periodontitis
B. Juvenile periodontitis
C. Desquamative gingivitis
D. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

# All of the following can cause desquamative gingivitis EXCEPT:
A. Pemphigus
B. Pemphigoid
C. Lichen planus
D. Herpes simplex

# Histologic examination of desquamative gingivitis shows:
A. Hyperkeratosis
B. Loss of rete pegs
C. Loss of basement membrane
D. All of the above

# Probable etiology of gingivosis is:
A. High progesterone levels
B. Deficiency of Oestrogen and testosterone
C. Pregnancy
D. Aldosterone deficiency

# Other name of menopausal gingivostomatitis is:
A. Senile atrophic gingivostomatitis
B. Periodontosis
C. Scorbutic gingivitis
D. Desquamative gingivitis

# Pigmentation of chemicals in mucosa is due to:
A. Increased permeability of blood vessels
B. Local deposition of chemicals in mucosa
C. Subepithelial precipitation in connective tissue at the site due to increased capillary permeability
D. None of the above

# A thin bluish line around the gingival margin is due to the absorption of :
A. Silver
B. Mercury
C. Drugs like tetracycline
D. Lead

# A black line on gingiva which follows the contour of the margin is:
A. Lead
B. Argyria
C. Iron
D. Mercury

# Mesenteric line is:
A. Brown stain present on posterior teeth which can be removed with scaler, separated from the gingival margin by an unstained band of tooth surface 1-2 mm wide
B. Green stain present on the labial surface of incisors and canines in both upper and lower jaws, which is relatively difficult to remove
C. Continuous bluish pigmented line on the free gingival margin of all teeth following the contour of the teeth
D. None of the above

# At 6 years age, interdental papillary necrosis, ulceration, pain, bleeding and pseudomembrane formation is seen in:
A. Herpetic gingivostomatitis
C. Erythema multiforme
D. Streptococcal gingivostomatitis

# The microbial etiology of ANUG is:
A. Borrelia vincenti and Fusobacterium
B. Actinomycetam comitans
C. Actinomyces naeslundii
D. Streptococcus mutans

# The spirochaete which is associated with fusospirochetosis is:
A. Treponema pallidum
B. Treponema pertenue
C. Borrelia burgdorferi
D. Borrelia vincenti

# Woody sensation is seen in:
A. Desquamative gingivitis
B. Juvenile periodontitis
D. Traumatic occlusion

# ANUG affects the:
A. Attached gingiva
B. Marginal gingiva
C. Alveolar mucosa
D. Interdental papilla

# Lesions in ANUG can be described as:
A. Vesiculobullous lesions which are contagious
B. Ulcerative lesions which are contagious
C. Ulcerative lesions contagious but not infectious
D. Ulcerative lesions infectious but not contagious

# Not a contributing factor for ANUG:
A. Pericoronal flap
B. Poor oral hygiene
C. Smoking
D. Aphthous ulcers

# ANUG is frequently associated with deficiency of:
A. Thiamine
B. Riboflavin
C. Niacin
D. Pyridoxine

# Tobacco chewing is thought to be associated with which of the following conditions?
A. Desquamative gingivitis
C. Juvenile periodontitis
D. Erythema multiforme

# ANUG patients have higher levels of one of the following:
A. Calcium
B. Bilirubin
C. Free Cortisol
D. Glucose

# Following is useful for the diagnosis of ANUG:
A. Tissue smear
B. Dark field microscopy
C. Compliment fixation
D. Slide precipitation

# Bacterial invasion of connective tissue in ANUG is demonstrated by:
A. Glickmann
B. Listgarten
C. Lindhe
D. Waerlug

# Treatment for ANUG in initial stages without systemic involvement is:
A. Metronidazole and penicillin therapy
B. Gingivectomy and gingivoplasty
C. Thorough debridement and H2O2 mouthwashes
D. All of the above

# Which of the following conditions if not treated properly may lead to Noma?
A. Diphtheria
B. Herpangina
C. Herpetic gingivostomatitis

# ANUG is reported to have an increased incidence in:
A. Diabetes mellitus
C. Tuberculosis
D. Syphilis

# Metronidazole is the drug of choice for:
A. All periodontal disease
C. Juvenile Periodontitis
D. Herpes simplex

# Extractions can be done in ANUG patients after:
A. 4 weeks
B. At 1st appointment only
C. 4 months
D. 1 week

# Which of the following is contraindicated in ANUG?
A. Hydrogen peroxide solution rinsing
B. Warm saline water rinsing
C. Steroid therapy
D. Penicillin therapy

# Systemically, antibiotics are routinely indicated for:
B. Adult periodontitis
C. Chronic gingivitis
D. None of the above

# Untrue about ANUG:
A. Common in Down's syndrome
B. Intermediate spirochetes commonly seen in electron microscopic studies
C. If neglected, results in deepening of pocket
D. Treated by gingivoplasty

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