Serial extraction is indicated primarily in:

 # Serial extraction is indicated primarily in:
A. Class I malocclusion
B. Class II malocclusion
C. Class III malocclusion
D. Lower anterior crowding only

The correct answer is D. Lower anterior crowding only.

Serial extraction is directed toward severe dental crowding. For this reason, it is best used when no skeletal problem exists and the space discrepancy is large-greater than l0mm per arch. If the crowding is severe, little space will remain after the teeth are aligned, which means there will be little tipping and uncontrolled movement of the adjacent teeth into the extraction sites. If the initial discrepancy is smaller, more residual space must be anticipated. It is unwise to start serial extraction in a child who has a skeletal problem, because the closure of extraction spaces would be affected by how the skeletal problem was being addressed.

Serial extraction treatment begins in the early mixed dentition with extraction of primary incisors if necessary, followed by extraction of the primary canines to allow eruption and alignment of the permanent incisors. 

Ref: Comtemporary Orthodontics, 4th Edition, Proffit, Page 490

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