MCQs in General Pathology - Cardiovascular Pathology

# All of the following are examples in which active hyperemia is seen EXCEPT:
A. Inflammation and high grade fever
B. Blushing of face following emotion
C. Muscular exercise
D. Cardiac congestive failure

# Which of the following is true of heart failure cells?
A. Hemosiderin pigment laden alveolar macrophages present in venous congestion of lungs
B. Also called as Aschoff nodules present in endocardium seen in rheumatic fever
C. Also called as Mallory bodies seen in alcoholic cirrhosis of liver
D. Cells responsible for cardiac failure in congestive cardiac failure

# Cor pulmonale most commonly results from:
A. Pulmonary hypertension
B. Systemic hypertension
C. Myocardial infarction
D. Aortic stenosis

# Left side heart failure results in:
A. Oedema of lungs
B. Oedema of spleen
C. Oedema of legs
D. Oedema of liver

# Nutmeg liver is seen in:
A. Chronic venous congestion due to right side heart failure
B. Infective hepatitis
C. Alcoholic cirrhosis
D. All of the above

# Left sided heart failure commonly results from:
A. Mechanical overload as seen in aortic stenosis
B. Weakness of left ventricular wall as in myocardial infarction
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

# Chronic venous congestion of lungs. TRUE is:
A. Develops in left side heart failure and is mainly due to atherosclerotic heart diseases
B. Brown induration of lungs occurs in left side heart failure
C. Heart failure cells are present in alveolar lumina
D. All of the above

# Gamma Gandy bodies are seen in:
A. Liver
B. Spleen
C. Kidney
D. Lung

# Heart failure cells are:
A. Fibrocytes in myocardium
B. Aschoff's giant cells
C. Hemosiderin laden macrophages in alveoli
D. Hypertrophic myocardial fibres

# The earliest symptom of patients with congestive cardiac failure is:
A. Dyspnoea
B. Angina pectoris
C. Oedema of ankles
D. Confusion

# Which of the following is not associated with congestive cardiac failure?
A. Oedema of ankles
B. Confusion and dullness
C. Congestion of liver and cyanosis
D. Anasarca or generalised oedema of body

# The most common conspicuous clinical sign of right sided heart failure is:
A. Systemic venous congestion
B. Systemic hypertension
C. Chronic congestion of lung
D. Mitral stenosis

# The most reliable post mortem feature of left sided cardiac failure is:
A. Systemic venous congestion
B. Oedematous ankles
C. Chronic venous congestion of lungs
D. Enlargement of spleen and liver

# Which of the following is not a direct cause of left sided heart failure?
A. Aortic stenosis
B. Systemic hypertension
C. Myocardial infarction
D. Emphysema

# Pulmonary hypertension causes hypertrophy of:
A. Right ventricle
B. Right atrium
C. Left ventricle
D. Left atrium

# Myocardial infarction is common in patients with hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. These are associated in common with:
A. Atherosclerosis
B. Thrombosis
C. Congenital diseases
D. Pulmonary embolism

# The common cause of sudden death in myocardial infarction is:
A. Pulmonary embolism
B. Arrhythmia
C. Congestive heart failure
D. None of the above

# The common cause of cardiac death in developed countries is:
A. Coronary heart diseases
B. Mitral stenosis
C. Congestive cardiac disease
D. Endocarditis

# Each of the following is a risk factor for atherosclerosis EXCEPT:
A. Heredity
B. Alcoholism
C. Hypertension
D. Diabetes mellitus
E. Hyperlipoproteinemia

# Earliest lesion in atherosclerosis is:
A. Atheroma
B. Fatty flake
C. Fibrous flake
D. None of the above

# Cerebral embolism occurring as a complication of myocardial infarction is most indicative of:
A. Mural thrombosis
B. Phlebothrombosis
C. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
D. None of the above

# Vascular changes in pulmonary hypertension are similar to:
A. Essential hypertension
B. Pulmonary embolism
C. Pulmonary infarct
D. None of the above

# Hypertensive heart disease is most commonly associated with:
A. Left ventricular hypertrophy
B. Right ventricular hypertrophy
C. Tricuspid stenosis
D. Pulmonary stenosis

# Which of the following is most likely to cause sudden cardiac arrest?
A. Constrictive pericarditis
B. Tricuspid stenosis
C. Cardiac tamponade
D. Pulmonary hypertension

# After myocardial infarction, all of the following enzyme levels are high EXCEPT:
A. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
B. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)
C. Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK)
D. Serum ornithine carbamyl transferase (SOCT)

# Which of the following isoenzymes of CPK is characteristically increased in immediate myocardial infarction:
A. CPK1 or BB
B. CPK2 or MB
C. CPK3 or MM
D. None of the above

# Three days after the onset of myocardial infarction which enzyme level has the best predictive value?
A. Serum CPK
B. Serum LDH
C. Serum SGOT
D. Serum SGPT

# Vegetation in acute bacterial endocarditis consists of:
A. Fibrin fused platelets with masses of bacteria and neutrophil infiltration
B. Fibrin fused platelets with granulation tissue formation and fibroelastic proliferation
C. Areas characterized by healing and scar formation
D. All of the above

# Which of the following are characteristically present in rheumatic fever?
A. Aschoff bodies in cardiac muscle
B. Dane particles in liver
C. Russel bodies in plasma cells
D. Monekenberg's sclerosis of the aorta

# Valvular damage in heart as seen in rheumatic fever results from:
A. Hypersensitivity to group A streptococci
B. Hypersensitivity to group B streptococci
C. Primary infection of Streptococcus albus
D. Primary infection of beta-hemolytic streptococci

# Which of the following is a minor clinical sign of rheumatic fever?
A. Migratory polyarthritis and carditis
B. Sydenham's chorea
C. Fever and increased ESR
D. Erythema marginatum and subcutaneous nodules

# Which of the following is not a minor sign of rheumatic fever?
A. Increased ASO titres
B. Fever and increased ESR values
C. Leukocytosis and ECG changes
D. Rheumatic arthritis and chorea

# The major cause of death in rheumatic fever is:
A. Cardiac failure
B. Bacterial endocarditis
C. Embolism
D. All of the above

# Which of the following valves is most commonly affected in rheumatic fever and in subacute bacterial endocarditis?
A. Mitral valve
B. Tricuspid valve
C. Aortic valve
D. Pulmonary valve

# Which of the following is difference between acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis?
A. Subacute bacterial endocarditis occurs on previously damaged valves whereas acute bacterial endocarditis occurs on normal valves
B. The vegetations of acute type are more bulky and globular than subacute type
C. Vegetations of acute form are characterized by neutrophil infiltration whereas in subacute form it is characterized by mononuclear infiltration and formation of granulation tissue
D. All of the above

# Rose-Wallar Test is positive in:
A. Rheumatoid arthritis
B. Osteoarthritis
C. Gout
D. Psoriatic arthritis

# Clubbing of fingers and cyanosis of nail beds is seen in all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
A. Congenital heart diseases and CCF
B. Congenital pulmonary disease
C. Polycythemia
D. Syphilis

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