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Flumazenil can reverse the action of:

 # Flumazenil can reverse the action of:
A. Fentanyl
B. Propofol
C. Ketamine
D. Midazolam


The correct answer is D. Midazolam.

Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist. It competes with benzodiazepine agonists and inverse agonists for the benzodiazepine receptor and reverses their depressant or stimulant effects respectively. Flumazenil abolishes the hypnogenic, psychomotor, cognitive and EEG effects of benzodiazepines. Among the options provided, Midazolam is a benzodiazepine. 

Uses: 
• To reverse benzodiazepine anaesthesia 
• Benzodiazepine overdose 


Jannetta procedure is done in:

 # Jannetta procedure is done in:
A. Bell’s palsy
B. Trigeminal neuralgia
C. Herpes Zoster
D. Paresthesias



The correct answer is B. Trigeminal neuralgia.

Microvascular decompression (MVD), also known as the Jannetta procedure, is a neurosurgical procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia (along with other cranial nerve neuralgias) a pain syndrome characterized by severe episodes of intense facial pain, and hemifacial spasm. The procedure is also used experimentally to treat tinnitus and vertigo caused by vascular compression on the vestibulocochlear nerve.

Angle between Frankfort horizontal plane and occlusal plane is:

 # Angle between FH plane and Occlusal plane is:
A. 1 degree
B. 10 degrees
C. 27 degrees
D. Parallel to each other


The correct answer is B. 10 degrees.

This is from Down's analysis. The cant measures the slope of occlusal plane to the Frankfort horizontal plane. When the anterior part of plane is lower than the posterior, the angle would be positive. Large positive angles are found in Class II facial patterns. A long mandibular ramus also tends to decrease this angle. The mean value is +9.3° with a range of +1.5° to +9.3°. 


Under metabolic conditions associated with a high rate of fatty acid oxidation, liver produces

 # Under metabolic conditions associated with a high rate of fatty acid oxidation, liver produces:
A. Glutamate
B. Acetoacetate
C. Cholesterol
D. Glycine


The correct answer is B. Acetoacetate.

- The ketone body formation occurs primarily due to non-availability of carbohydrates to the tissues and excessive utilization of fatty acids to meet the energy requirements of the cells. 
- Acetone, Acetoacetate and Beta-hydroxybutyrate are the ketone bodies. 
- Glucagon stimulates ketogenesis whereas insulin inhibits ketogenesis. 


Delhi boil refers to:

 # Delhi boil refers to:
A. Solar keratosis
B. Malignant pustule
C. Leishmania Tropica
D. Venereal ulcer



The correct answer is C. Leishmania Tropica.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (also known as oriental sore, tropical sore, chiclero ulcer, chiclero's ulcer or Aleppo boil) are sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies. Delhi boil is a chronic inflammatory disease, most commonly met with in India, especially towards the end of the wet season. The common staphylococcal skin infections- Furunculosis of the external auditory meatus is extremely painful, as the skin is attached to the underlying cartilage, and swelling is accompanied by considerable tension. 

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Histologically, presence of numerous mast cells is diagnostic feature of:

 # Histologically, presence of numerous mast cells is diagnostic feature of:
a. Fibroma
b. Neurofibroma
c. Traumatic neuroma
d. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor


The correct answer is B. Neurofibroma.

Solitary and multiple neurofibromas have the same microscopic features. They contain spindle-shaped
cells, with fusiform or wavy nuclei found in a delicate connective tissue matrix; this matrix may be notably myxoid in character. Lesions may be well circumscribed or may blend into surrounding connective tissue. Mast cells are characteristically scattered throughout the lesion. A histologic subtype
known as plexiform neurofibroma is regarded as highly characteristic of neurofibromatosis. In this variety, a collagen matrix supports extensive interlacing masses of nerve tissue. Small axons may be seen among the proliferating Schwann cells and perineural cells.