MCQs on Epidemiology - Public health Dentistry / Community Dentistry

NOTE: It has been proved that you will retain more of what you study if you test yourself immediately after studying. For that, Watch this Video and Study all the MCQs first and then Test yourself by taking the Quiz below.

# In a double blind study, true is:
A. The research investigator is blind to the dependent and independent variable.
B. The subject and the examiner do not know the details of the study
C. The subject in the study do not know the examiner doing the study
D. Only the examiner knows the group to which the subject belongs

# The study which proceeds from cause to effect:
A. Retrospective
B. Cohort
C. Case Control
D. Descriptive

# Reliability of a screening test, refers to:
A. depends on knowledge of the observer
B. accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
C. gives same values even on repeated testing
D. the extent to which the observer can go in finding the result

# The measurement of strength of association between risk factor and outcome is:
A. Odds ratio
B. Poisson's ratio
C. Attributable risk
D. Relative risk

# Good clinical practice is observed in all phases of clinical practice EXCEPT:
A. Phase V
B. Preclinical
C. Phase II
D. Phase I

# The frequency of a disease or characteristic expressed per unit size of the population or group in which it is observed is:
A. Proportion
B. Average
C. Rate
D. Ratio

# If odds ratio is one, then:
A. Low association
B. None
C. High association
D. False statement

# Mass chemoprophylaxis in endemic area is recommended for all of the following except:
A. Leprosy
B. Yaws
C. Trachoma
D. Filaria

# The concept which views health as 'absence from disease' is called:
A. Psychological aspect
B. Holistic concept
C. Ecological concept
D. Biomedical concept

# The basic tools of measurement in epidemiology are:
A. Epidemic, Pandemic and endemic
B. Morbidity, mortality and disability
C. Rates, ratios and proportions
D. Incidence, prevalence and index

# In an epidemiological study, the first case that comes to the attention of the investigator is called:
A. Reference case
B. Secondary case
C. Index case
D. Primary case

# NOT TRUE about crude birth rate:
A. It is a measure of fertility
B. It is independent of age of population
C. Numerator does not include still births
D. It is actually a ratio, not a rate

# The common first approach to test casual hypothesis is:
A. Case control study
B. Cohort study
C. Randomized control trial
D. Descriptive study

# Socratic method of communication is used to:
A. Formal communication
B. Two way communication
C. One way communication
D. Verbal communication

# If the prevalence is low as compared to the incidence of the disease, it implies:
A. Nothing can be said as they are independent
B. Disease is very fatal and/or easily curable
C. Disease is non fatal
D. Assumption is wrongly framed

# Genetic factors, age, gender, socioeconomic status are also known as:
A. Risk determinants
B. Risk factors
C. Risk indicators
D. Risk markers

# Screening for oral cancer comes under which level of prevention?
A. Secondary level
B. Tertiary level
C. Primary level
D. None of the above

# Endemic disease means that a disease:
A. exhibits seasonal pattern
B. is constantly present in a given population group
C. is prevalent among animals
D. occurs clearly in excess of normal expectancy

# Vitamin A prophylaxis is an example of:
A. Health promotion
B. Disability limitation
C. Specific protection
D. Primordial prevention

# Which of the following is correct?
A. Health promotion and specific protection come under primary prevention
B. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment comes under secondary prevention
C. Disability limitation and rehabilitation comes under tertiary prevention
D. All of the above

# The number of new cases of a specific disease occurring in a defined population during a specified period of time is known as:
A. Prevalence
B. Distribution
C. Point prevalence
D. Incidence

# The purpose of double blinding in clinical trial is to:
A. Avoid observe bias
B. Avoid comparability between study and control groups
C. Avoid observer and subject bias
D. Avoid subject bias

# Emporiatrics is the word used to describe the science of:
A. Health of travelers
B. Feet
C. Child health
D. Epidemics

# Prevention of a disease has _____ levels.
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

# Bias is any systematic error in the determination of association between:
A. Relative risk and attributable risk
B. Incidence and Prevalence
C. Exposure and disease
D. Disease and environmental factors

# A malarial survey is conducted in 50 villages having population of 1 lakh. 500 cases turned out to be malaria positive. The annual parasite incidence is:
A. 5%
B. 0.4%
C. 20%
D. 0.5%

# Blinding can be done to eliminate which type of bias?
A. Confounding bias
B. Interviewers
C. Berksonian
D. Recall

# An epidemiological investigation undertaken to test the hypothesis regarding the causation of a disease is called:
A. Descriptive study
B. Cohort study
C. Case control study
D. Prospective study

# The prevention of emergence or development of risk factors in countries where they have not appeared is what type of prevention?
A. Primary
B. Primordial
C. Secondary
D. Tertiary

# Randomized controlled trial has:
A. Different experimental group
B. Same characteristics of experimental and control group
C. Does not eliminate bias
D. None of them

# What is defined as " ratio of no. of death under 1 year of age to total live birth per 1000 live births per year"?
A. Child mortality rate
B. Life expectancy rate
C. Infant mortality rate
D. Child morbidity rate

# Dentists participating in the delta plan are paid 90th percentile whereas non-participating dentists are paid:
A. 30th percentile
B. 50th percentile
C. 100th percentile
D. 15th percentile

# The occurrence of dental caries in a population at a given point of time may be termed as:
A. Incidence
B. Point prevalence
C. Period prevalence
D. None of the above

# Madhumalla, a town in Nepal has a population of 12000. In 2017, 2000 residents of the town are diagnosed with diabetes. In 2018, 1000 more residents of the town are diagnosed of diabetes. The incidence and prevalence of the disease in 2018 are:
A. 2000/12000 and 1000/12000
B. 1000/10000 and 3000/12000
C. 1000/12000 and 3000/12000
D. 1000/10000 and 3000/10000

# Primordial prevention,a new concept receiving special attention in the prevention of:
A. Chronic disease
B. Epidemics
C. Pandemics
D. Acute disease

# To test the association between risk factor and disease, which of the following is the weakest study design?
A. Case control study
B. Cohort study
C. Ecological study
D. Cross-Sectional Study

# When a disease spreads from one country to another in a short time, it is called:
A. Endemic
B. Epidemic
C. Sporadic
D. Pandemic

# For the calculation of positive predictive value of a screening test, the denominator is comprised of:
A. True +ves + False -ves
B. False +ves + True -ves
C. True +ves + False +ves
D. True +ves + True -ves

# The analytical study where population is the unit of study is:
A. Case control
B. Ecological
C. Cohort Study
D. Cross sectional

# The major purpose of randomization in a clinical trial is to:
A. Ensure the groups are comparable on baseline characteristics
B. Help ensure the study subjects are representative of general population
C. Reduce selection bias in allocation to treatment
D. Facilitate double blinding

# Regarding case control study, all the following are correct, EXCEPT:
A. Risk factors can be identified
B. Requires few subjects
C. It measures incidence
D. Used in study of rare diseases

# If incidence is 50 cases/1000 population/year and mean duration of disease is 5 years, then, prevalence would be:
A. 1/250
B. 10
C. 250
D. 1/10

# The rate of the yearly occurence of dental caries attack is referred to as:
A. Caries mortality
B. Caries prevalence
C. Caries experience
D. Incidence of caries

# The tobacco preparation mainly used to clean the tooth is:
A. Dhumti
B. Masheri
C. Khaini
D. Mawa

# To achieve caries reduction in adults, the diet modification should be:
A. Restrict sugars to 6 times a day
B. Restrict in between meals sugar intake
C. Restrict sugars to 10 times a day
D. foods rich in calcium and vitamins

# What kind of sampling should be done when there is a small group of patients, easily available?
A. Multistage sampling
B. Random sampling
C. Multiphase sampling
D. None of the above

# Best approach to study a rare disease is:
A. Case control study
B. Clinical trial
C. Cross sectional study
D. Cohort study

# For large country surveys, the sampling method of choice is:
A. Multistage random sampling
B. Cluster sampling
C. Multiphase sampling
D. Multiple sampling

# All of the following are the advantages of case control studies EXCEPT:
A. Odds ratio can be calculated
B. Useful in rare disease
C. Cost-effective and inexpensive
D. Relative risk can be calculated

# Prevalence of a disease is:
A. Rate
B. Ratio
C. Proportion
D. Deviation

# Cross sectional studies are carried on:
A. Different individuals of different age groups
B. Different individuals but of same age groups
C. Same individuals but of same age
D. Same individuals at different ages

# Which of the following is used as a reference for a study through a period of time?
A. Incidence
B. Base line data
C. Prevalence
D. Rate

# Severity of a disease is measured by:
A. Relative risk
B. Proportional mortality rate
C. Attributable risk
D. Case fatality rate

# Occurence of malocclusion in a given population is best described as:
A. Morbidity
B. Incidence rate
C. Probability
D. Prevalence rate

# Index ages for the survey are:
A. 5, 12, 15, 35 to 44 and 65-74 years
B. 5 to 10, 15 to 35, 40 to 65 years
C. 5, 15, 25, 35, 40 to 65 years
D. 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 to 70 years

# Berkesonian bias in a case control study is a bias due to:
A. Bias introduced by investigator
B. Presence of confounding factors
C. Patient can not recall or gives false information
D. Different admission rates for different diseases

# In which of the following infectious disease, the prevalence is most likely to exceed incidence?
A. Influenza
B. Leprosy
C. Rubella
D. Measles

# Repetition of a study in a given group is:
A. Panel study
B. Cohort study
C. Group study
D. High risk


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