MCQs on Pathology - Fluid and Hemodynamic Disorders

The correct answers are highlighted in green. Please read these MCQs once quickly and test yourself by watching the video at the bottom of the page.

# Oedema may be caused by any of the following EXCEPT: (MAN -95)
a) An increase in the plasma protein concentration
b) An increase in the capillary hydrostatic pressure
c) An increase in the capillary permeability
d) Lymphatic obstruction

# The most common site of origin for venous thrombi leading to pulmonary embolism is: (KCET- 09)
a) Ascending aorta
b) Portal vein
c) Deep leg veins
d) Right atrium

# Anasarca means
a) Abnormal inflammatory process
b) Severe generalized swelling
c) Absence of proliferation of vessels following inflammation
d) Presence of pus

# Edema is due to: (KAR -98)
a) Increased albumin in blood and decreased globin
b) Decreased albumin cone, in blood
c) Increased osmotic pressure
d) None of the above

# Which of the following is common in all forms of shock? (MAN -97)
a) Sepsis
b) Hypovolemia
c) Vasoconstriction
d) Impaired tissue perfusion

# All of the following are typically associated with the loss of 40% of the circulating blood volume except: (MAN -94; AIIMS -93)
a) A decrease in the blood pressure
b) A decrease in the central venous pressure
c) A decrease in the heart rate
d) A decrease in the urine output

# In hypovolemic shock: (KAR -02)
a) The central venous pressure is high
b) The extremities are pale, cold and sweating
c) There is always a site of bleeding
d) Urine output is unaffected

# Hypovolemic shock develops after loss of: (KAR -98)
a) 10% blood
b) 20% blood
c) 30% blood
d) 40% blood

# Following is the most important factor in the management of shock: (TNPSC -99)
a) Blood pressure
b) Cardiac output
c) CVP to 8 cm of water
d) Deficiency of effective circulating blood volume

# Heart failure cells are: (MAN -98, COMEDK- 06)
a) Fibrocytes in myocardium
b) Aschoji's giant cells
c) Heamosiderin laden macrophages in alveoli
d) Hypertrophic myocardial fibres 

# Heart failure cells are seen in: (KAR -2K)
a) Heart
b) Lungs
c) Liver
d) Kidney

# Nut meg liver occurs in: (KAR -2K)
a) Jaundice
b) Chronic venous congestion
c) Cirrhosis
d) Hepatocellular carcinoma

# The type of embolism seen in fractures of long bones: (KAR -01)
a) Thrombo embolism
b) Air embolism
c) Fat embolism
d) Amniotic fluid embolism

#  In a thrombus, the dark lines of zahn are due to: (MAN -98)
a) Coagulated fibrin
b) Aggregated proteins
c) Aggregated platelets
d) Aggregated R.B.C

# In hemorrhage lost plasma is replaced by: (AIIMS -96)
a) Bone marrow
b) Kidney
c) Spleen
d) Muscle

#  The common cause of sudden death in myocardial infarction is
a) Congestive heart failure
b) Arrhythmias
c) Pulmonary embolism
d) None of the above

#  Infarcts are not common in
a) Both Liver and Lung
b) Liver
c) Kidney
d) Lung

# Shock is a circulatory disturbance characterized by: (APPSC-99)
a) Increased blood pressure
b) Decreased volume of circulating blood
c) Elevated body temperature
d) Decreased volume of interstitial fluid

# Which of the following statement is incorrect
a) HDL contains the highest cholesterol content
b) Low density lipoproteins has maximum association with atherosclerosis
c) Poly unsaturated fats lowers plasma cholesterol levels
d) High density lipoproteins have protective role in atherosclerosis

# Which of the following symptomatic atherosclerotic disease is correct
a) Lower extremities - claudication gangrene
b) Aorta - Aneurysm, thromboembolism
c) Heart - MI, Ischemic heart disease
d) All of the above 

# The major factors predisposing to thrombogenesis include all of the following except
a) Altered blood flow
b) Endothelial injury
c) Pattern of blood flow
d) Hyper coagulability of blood

# Three days after the onset of myocardial infarction, which enzyme level has the best predictive value
a) Serum CPK
b) Serum SGOT
c) Serum LDH
d) Serum SGPT

# Which of the following is not indicative of hemorrhage?
a) Ecchymosis
b) Petechiae
c) Melanosis
d) Malena

# Which of the following being is the most frequent site of thrombus? (KAR -97)
a) Hepatic vein
b) Pulmonary vein
c) Portal vein
d) Veins of lower extremities

# Ascites seen in alcoholic liver cirrhosis result from:
a) Decreased protein production by liver
b) Due to increased portal hypertension
c) Due to obstruction of bile duct
d) All of them

# An infarct is most frequently characterized by what type of necrosis? (AIPG -98)
a) Caseous
b) Coagulative
c) Fatty
d) Gangrenous

# The most reliable post mortem feature of left sided cardiac failure is:
a) Systemic venous congestion
b) Chronic venous congestion of lungs
c) Enlargement of spleen and liver
d) Oedematous ankles

# Which of the following is correctly matched with the forms of extravasation hemorrhages
a) Petechiae - small pin point hemorrhages
b) Purpura - small areas (1cm) of hemorrhage in to the skin and mucous membrane
c) Ecchymosis - large extravasation of blood in to the skin and mucous membrane
d) All of them

# The most reliable post mortem feature of left sided cardiac failure is
a) Systemic venous congestion
b) Chronic venous congestion of lungs
c) Enlargement of spleen and liver
d) Oedematous ankles

# Extravasation of blood in to the tissues with resulting swelling is called
a) Heamoperitonium
b) Hematoma
c) Heamopericardium
d) Hemothorax

# The infarct of the following organ is invariably haemorrhagic: (COMEDK- 10)
a) Heart
b) Spleen
c) Lung
d) Kidney

# Risk factor for atherosclerosis:
a) Hypertension
b) Diabetes
c) Smoking
d) All of them

# The commonest site of thrombosis is: (AIPG -98)
a) Heart
b) Arteries
c) Veins
d) Capillaries 

# Which of the following predisposes to thrombogenesis?
a) Stasis of blood
b) Endothelial injury
c) Turbulence of blood
d) All of them

# Partial or complete obstruction of some part of the C.V.S by a foreign body transported by the blood stream is termed as: (AIPG -98)
a) Coagulation
b) Ischaemia
c) Thrombosis
d) Embolism

# Which of the following statements is true
a) Arterial thrombi to be white and non occlusive (mural) where as venous thrombi are red and occlusive
b) Arterial thrombi produces ischemia and infarction where as cardiac and venous thrombi cause embolism
c) Venous thrombi are soft, red and gelatinous where as arterial thrombi are firm and white
d) All of them

# Major and frequent influence for thrombus formation is:
a) Fatty streak
b) Hypercoagulability
c) Endothelial damage
d) Alteration in blood flow

# Major site of atherosclerosis
a) Thoracic aorta
b) Coronary artery
c) Abdominal aorta
d) Internal carotid artery

# Active hyperemia is seen in
a) Muscles during exercise
b) Inflammation
c) Blushing
d) All of them
# After myocardial infarction all the following enzyme levels are high except: (COMEDK-06)
a) Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
b) Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)
c) Creatine phospho kinase (CPK)
d) Serum ornithine carbamyl transferase (SOCT)

# Caissons disease is caused by: (KAR -98; 04)
a) Amniotic fluid embolism
b) Tumour embolism
c) Hyper coagulability
d) Air or gas embolism

# Thrombosis due to hypercoagulability is seen in
a) Severe trauma or burns
b) Cardiac failure
c) Women taking oral contraceptives
d) All of them

# Venous emboli are most often lodged in: (COMEDK- 09)
a) Heart
b) Kidneys
c) Intestines
d) Lungs

# Gamna gandy bodies are seen in: (KAR -01)
a) Lung
b) Kidney
c) Liver
d) Spleen

# Both pale or red infarcts are seen in
a) Lung
b) Kidney
c) Brain
d) Spleen


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