Gemination, Twinning, Concrescence and Fusion of Teeth

Gemination:

  • An attempt at division of a single tooth before calcification, resulting in incomplete formation of two teeth.
  • The resultant structure will have two completely or incompletely separated crowns with a single root and root canal.
  • It is difficult to differentiate between gemination and a case in which there has been fusion between a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth.
Twinning:

The division of a single tooth resulting in one normal and one supernumerary tooth. The number of teeth will be more than normal.

Concrescence:
  • A form of fusion of cementum after completion of root formation
  • The teeth are united by cementum only.
  • Maxillary molars are frequently involved
Fusion: 
  • Union of two normally separated tooth germs.
  • If the union occurs before calcification, the two teeth are completely united to form a single Large tooth.
  • If the union occurs after calcification, there is union of roots only. The tooth may have separate or fused root canals.
  •  Fusion of teeth is more common in deciduous teeth.

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