# Acid etching is done to:

# Acid etching is done to:
A. Decrease microleakage
B. Decrease polymerization shrinkage
C. Decrease Coefficient of thermal expansion
D. Decrease porosity in restorative material

The correct answer is A. Decrease microleakage.

Acid-etching transforms the smooth enamel into an irregular surface  and increases its surface free energy. When a fluid resin-based material is applied to the irregular etched surface, the resin penetrates into the surface, aided by capillary action. Monomers in the material polymerize, and the material becomes interlocked with the enamel surface.The formation of resin microtags within the enamel surface is the fundamental mechanism of resin-enamel adhesion.

As measured in the laboratory, shear bond strengths of composite to phosphoric acid-etched enamel usually exceed 20 megapascals (MPa) and can range up to over 50 MPa, depending on the test method used. Such bond strengths provide adequate retention for a broad variety of procedures and prevent leakage around enamel margins of restorations.

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