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Part of the brain responsible for posture and coordination of movements:

 # Part of the brain responsible for posture and coordination of movements:
A. Cerebellum
B. Cerebrum
C. Medulla oblongata
D. Corpus callosum



The correct answer is A. Cerebellum.

The cerebellum lies dorsal to the pons and medulla and consists of two lateral hemispheres: the cerebellar hemispheres and a median worm-like part called vermis. It is connected to the midbrain, pons, and medulla by superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles, respectively. The surface of cerebellum has narrow transverse ridges called folia (leaf-like in sections) separated by deep fissures. 

Functionally, the cerebellum is mainly concerned with the involuntary control of somatic motor activities, essential for the maintenance of equilibrium, muscle tone, and posture.

Which type of neurotransmitter is found in basal ganglia?

 # Which type of neurotransmitter is found in basal ganglia?
A. Epinephrine
B. Histamine
C. GABA
D. Dopamine



The correct answer is C. GABA.

Basal ganglia is involved with movement control. It modulates information from the thalamus to the motor cortex in the execution of movement. GABA (Gamma Amino butyric acid) found in basal ganglia is an important neurotransmitter for many inhibitory synaptic connections. 

Acellular, condensed layer that forms a barrier

# An acellular, condensed layer that forms a barrier between the epithelium and connective tissues is called:
A. Basement membrane
B. Gap junctions
C. Desmosomes
D. Luminal surface



The correct answer is A. Basement membrane.

An acellular, condensed layer that forms a barrier between the epithelium and connective tissues is called basement membrane (lamina). Luminal surface is the surface of the lumen and may contain specialized structures such as cilia, microvilli, or sterocilia. Desmosomes (macula densa) are small, circular patches deep in the zonula adherens. Gap junctions are small pores found between adjacent cells that allow the passage of small molecules. 


Which of the following is not an important division of subclavian artery?

 # Which of the following is not an important division of subclavian artery?
A. Thyrocervical trunk
B. Internal thoracic artery
C. Carotid artery
D. Vertebral artery



The correct answer is C. Carotid artery.

A. VERTEBRAL ARTERY: Supplies the brain.
B. INTERNAL THORACIC ARTERY: Descends to supply the diaphragm and terminates as the superior epigastric artery, which helps to supply the abdominal wall.
C. THYROCERVICAL OR CERVICOTHYROID TRUNK: Divides into three arteries- the transverse cervical artery, suprascapular artery and the inferior thyroid artery.
D. COSTOCERVICAL TRUNK: divides into two branches- the superior intercostals and deep cervical arteries, which supply muscles of intercostal spaces.
E. DORSAL SCAPULAR ARTERY: supplies the muscles of the scapular region. 

Carotid artery is not a part of subclavian artery.

The most abundant protein in humans is:

 # The most abundant protein in humans is:
A. Fatty acids
B. Fiber
C. Carbohydrates
D. Collagen



The correct answer is D. Collagen.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in human body, characterized by its high rigidity and tensile strength.

Which of the following collagen is found in cartilage?

 # Which of the following collagen is found in cartilage?
A. Type 1
B. Type 2
C. Type 3
D. Type 4



The correct answer is B. Type 2.

Several types of Collagen are found in different body tissues.
a. Type I - Skin, tendon, bone, dentin
b. Type II - Cartilage
c. Type III - Aorta, fetal skin
d. Type IV - Basement membrane
e. Type V - Placenta, Skin


Percentage of proline in collagen

 # Approximately one third of collagen is glycine and about _______ is proline.
A. 14 %
B. 12 %
C. 10 %
D. 5 %



The correct answer is C. 10 %.

Approximately one third of collagen is glycine (every third position) and ten percent is proline.

Fibrous, insoluble protein derived from epidermis is:

 # ________ is fibrous, insoluble protein derived from epidermis.
A. Collagen
B. Keratin
C. Elastin
D. Myofibril


The correct answer is B. Keratin.

Keratin is fibrous and insoluble protein derived from epidermnis. Elastin is rich in proline and other non polar side chains. Approximately one third of elastin is composed of amino acid glycine.



Mithila Multispeciality Dental and Implant Centre Pvt. Ltd., Lahan, Siraha

 Name of Dental Clinic:Mithila Multispeciality Dental and Implant Centre Pvt. Ltd.
Address (Full): Lahan-3;Hospital chowk
Year of Establishment: 2079
Name of the chief Dental Surgeon: Dr.Pankaj Shah
CONTACT NUMBER: 9803293946


An 'orphan drug' is:

 # An 'orphan drug' is:
A. A very cheap drug
B. A drug which has no therapeutic use
C. A drug needed for treatment or prevention of a rare disease
D. A drug which acts on Orphanin receptors



The correct answer is C. A drug needed for treatment or prevention of a rare disease.

Orphan Drugs These are drugs or biological products for diagnosis/treatment/ prevention of a rare disease or condition, or a more common disease (endemic only in resource poor countries) for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and marketing it will be recovered from the sales of that drug. The list includes sodium nitrite, fomepizole, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, rifabutin, succimer, somatropin, digoxin immune Fab (digoxin antibody), liothyronine (T3) and many more. Though these drugs may be life saving for some patients, they are commercially difficult to obtain as a medicinal product. Governments in developed countries offer tax benefits and other incentives to pharmaceutical companies for developing and marketing orphan drugs (e.g. Orphan Drug Act in USA).

Drug of choice for monilial diarrhoea is:

 # The drug of choice for monilial diarrhoea is:
A. Flucytosine
B. Nystatin
C. Natamycin
D. Ketoconazole



The correct answer is B. Nystatin.

NYSTATIN: Obtained from S. noursei, it is similar to Amphotericin  B (AMB) in antifungal action and other properties. However, because of higher systemic toxicity, it is used only locally in superficial candidiasis.

Given orally, it is not absorbed; can be used for monilial diarrhoea (due to superinfection or otherwise), 5 lac U TDS (1 mg = 2000 U). Nausea and bad taste in mouth are the only side effects.



Tinea infection of body is called:

 # Tinea infection of body is called:
A. Tinea cruris
B. Tinea corporis
C. Tinea pedis
D. Tinea capitis



The correct answer is B. Tinea corporis.

“Tinea” means fungus, the cause of the rash, and “corporis” means the body. It's a superficial fungal skin infection caused by dermatophytes, which are a type of fungus.

Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a fungal infection that causes a red and itchy rash in warm and moist areas of the body. The rash often affects the groin and inner thighs and may be shaped like a ring. Jock itch gets its name because it's common in athletes. It's also common in people who sweat a lot or who are overweight.

Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal skin infection that usually begins between the toes. It commonly occurs in people whose feet have become very sweaty while confined within tight-fitting shoes.

Ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) is a rash caused by a fungal infection. It usually causes itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Ringworm gets its name because of its circular appearance. No worm is involved. Ringworm of the scalp is a contagious infection.




Which drug should be avoided by patient with severe renal impairment?

 # Which drug should be avoided by patient with severe renal impairment?
A. Aminoglycosides
B. Rifampicin
C. Glibenclamide
D. Clofibrate




The correct answer is A. Aminoglycosides.

Certain drugs worsen the existing clinical condition in renal failure, e.g.
• Tetracyclines have an anti-anabolic effect and accentuate uraemia.
• NSAIDs cause more fluid retention.
• Potentially nephrotoxic drugs, e.g. aminoglycosides, tetracyclines (except doxycycline), sulfonamides (crystalluria), vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, cyclosporine, amphotericin B should be avoided.


What spontaneously aggregates, and crosslinks form between lysine and hydroxylysine ?

 # ________ spontaneously aggregates, and crosslinks form between lysine and hydroxylysine.
A. Carbohydrate
B. Fiber
C. Tropocollagen
D. Collagen



The correct answer is C. Tropocollagen.

Tropocollagen spontaneously aggregates, and crosslinks form between lysine and hydroxylysine. 


Which classification of lipid consist of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ?

 # Which classification of lipid consist of hydrophobic and hydrophilic?
A. Sphingophospholipids
B. Glycolipids
C. Phospholipids
D. Phosphoglycerides



The correct answer is C. Phospholipids.

Phospholipids are composed of glycerol or sphingosine, two fatty acids, and phosphoric acid. They are an important component of membranes since they have hydrophobic (fatty acid) and hydrophilic (phosphoric acid) domains. Phosphoglycerides are composed of glycerol, fatty acids and phosphate.
Glycolipids (glycosphingolipids) are composed of carbohydrate, sphingosine, and fatty acid.





Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

 # Which of the following is true?
A. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation fails to describe the relationship between pK and pH
B. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation describes the relationship between pK and pH
C. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation cannot be used to determine the dissociation of ionizable groups at a given pH
D. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is not valid or viable



The correct answer is B. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation describes the relationship between pK and pH.

The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation describes the relationship between pK and pH. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation can be used to determine the dissociation of ionizable groups at a given pH.



What contain an aldehyde as their most oxidized functional group?

 # _______ contain an aldehyde as their most oxidized functional group.
A. Glycosidic bonds
B. Fructose
C. Ketose
D. Aldoses



The correct answer is D. Aldoses.

Aldoses contain an aldehyde as their most oxidized functional group. They may contain any number of carbons. Ketose contain  a keto group as their most oxidized functional group. Fructose is a ketohexose. Glycosidic bonds are bonds formed between two sugars or a sugar and another non carbohydrate molecule. 

Which of the following is true in lipid terminology?

 # Which of the following is true in lipid terminology?
A. Fatty acids do not possess a terminal carboxyl group that provides polarity to the molecule
B. Fatty acids are straight chained compounds containing an even number of hydrocarbons
C. Fatty acids are not amphipathic
D. Fatty acids are found only in adult body



The correct answer is B.  Fatty acids are straight chained compounds containing an even number of hydrocarbons.

 Fatty acids are straight chained compounds containing an even number of hydrocarbons. They possess a terminal carboxy group that provides polarity to the molecule. Because of this characteristic, fatty acids are amphipathic.

Meat of Polar Bear may cause:

 # A man during his visit to the Arctic ocean happened to eat meat of polar bear. He suffered from intense headache, drowsiness and vomiting. This is most likely due to:
A. Cold diarrhea
B. Vitamin A toxicity
C. Food allergy
D. Vitamin K toxicity


The correct answer is B. Vitamin A toxicity.

Acute poisoning has been described after consumption of polar bear liver which contains 30,000 IU/g vit A. Single massive ingestion (> 1 million IU) produces intense headache, drowsiness, irritability, rise in intracranial tension, vomiting, liver enlargement and shedding of skin. Due to saturation of RBP, excess retinol esters circulate in the free state or loosely associated with lipoprotein. These have surfactant property which damages tissues.

Treatment consists of stopping further ingestion, supportive measures, and vit E which promotes storage of retinol in tissues and speeds recovery. Most signs regress in a week, some persist for months. Excess intake of carotenoids does not produce hypervitaminosis A, because conversion to retinol has a ceiling.


Number of point angles in class 3 cavity preparation is:

 # Number of point angles in class 3 cavity preparation is:
A. 4
B. 5
C. 3
D. 11



The correct answer is C. 3.

The three point angles are: 
i) Incisal Point Angle
ii) Axiofaciogingival point angle, and 
iii) Axiogingivolingual point angle.




Removal of deep, pulp encroaching caries should be made using:

 # Removal of deep, pulp encroaching caries should be made using:
A. High rotational speeds
B. Low rotational speeds
C. Very high rotational speeds
D. All of the above



The correct answer is B. Low rotational speeds.

In deep carious lesion, wider dentinal tubules are present.(so sensitivity is more, which can be prevented by using coolants during cavity preparation, slow speed of instrument, biocompatible restorative material with suitable base).

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