BPKIHS Past Question : Endocrinology and Reproductive System - 2nd year MBBS

B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan
2nd Year MBBS
Unit - 4
Internal Assessment, January 2000

Paper - IIA
(Endocrines & Reproduction)

Time: 2 hour                                                                                                                                Maximum Marks: 125

Short Answer Questions

Please answer each section in a separate answer book.

                                             Section 'A'
1.                Draw a neatly labeled histological diagram of a mature ovarian follicle (Grafian follicle).
Explain how theca externa is formed.                                                                                    3+1

2.            Define deep perineal pouch. Enlist six components of the deep perineal pouch.               2+3

3.            Explain in brief why incisions into the breast are usually made radially ?                             3

4.            Explain in brief the embryological basis of  thyroglossal cyst.                                              3

5.            Give a brief account of the venous drainage of the prostate gland and its clinical importance.                                                                                                                                                            2+3

6.            Enumerate the important structures related to the medial surface of the lobe of the thyroid gland.                                                                                                                                                    5

Section 'B'
Physiology SAQ
7.            Describe briefly the mechanism of hypothalamic control over pituitary hormone secretion. 

8.            State the cardiovascular changes in response to stress and state the underlying mechanism. 
What is the difference between 'acute' and 'chronic' stress ?                                                  3+2

9.            Enumerate the hormones secreted from adrenal gland. Mention the  metabolic effects of cortisol.                                                                                                                                               3+2

10.          Name four methods for detection of ovulation and briefly explain each method.              2+3

11.          With the help of a diagram show how male hormone secretion is controlled by the 
hypothalmo-hypophysio-gonadal axis.                                                                                      5

12.          With the help of a flow diagram show how insulin deficiency may lead to diabetic
coma/death of a patient.                                                                                                             5

13.          Enumerate the hormones required for normal growth and development of mammary gland.
Mention the action of oxytocin on the mammary gland.                                                        2+3

Section 'C'
14.          Explain why testosterone is considered as an anabolic and growth-promoting hormone ?     4

15.          Mention two important indications of amniocentesis.                                                             2

16.          Explain how the action of insulin in liver and muscle helps in regulation of blood glucose.                                                                                                                                                                      4

17.          How does the action of cholera toxin differ from that of pertussis toxin ?                              3

18.          Explain how the antidiuretic hormone is secreted in response to changes in osmolality .      2
Section 'D'
19.          What is Grave's disease ? Describe the etiopathogenesis of grave's disease.                         2+3

20.          What are advanced glycosylation end products (AGE)? Mention two chemical and
two biological properties of AGE products.                                                                          3+2

21.          Write three characteristic features of endometrial carcinoma associated with
hyperestrogenism.                                                                                                                     3

22.          What is the Brethesda system of classifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).         2

23.          Name different gestational trophoblastic diseases. Tabulate four important differences between complete and partial hydatidiform mole.                                                                                5

Section 'E'
24.          List two bacterial causes of endocervicitis. How will you diagnose a case of endocervicitis in the laboratory ?                                                                                                                                  3

25.          List four bacterial causes of sexually transmitted diseases. Describe the principle of VDRL test?                                                                                                                                                        2

Section 'F'
26.          Explain why ?                                                                                                               2x5=10
a.                Adrenocorticosterids are contraindicated in patients with hypertension and congestive heart failure.
b.                Propranolol is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
c.                Lugol's iodine is given in the pre-operative preparation of a thyrotoxicosis patient.
d.                Rifampicin therapy in a woman on oral contraceptives may lead to failure of oral contraceptives.
e.                After prolonged administration, hydrocortisone should not be stopped abruptly

27.          Write briefly the mechanism of action, uses and common side effects of the following drugs.
a.            Propylthiouracil                                                                                                           5
b.            Clomiphene citrate                                                                                                      5
c.            Glibenclamide                                                                                                              5