Raloxifene is used in the treatment of:

 # Raloxifene is used in the treatment of:
A. Renal osteodystrophy
B. Post menopausal osteoporosis
C. Chronic renal failure
D. Chronic osteomyelitis

The correct answer is B. Post menopausal osteoporosis. 

Raloxifene is used by women to prevent and treat bone loss (osteoporosis) after menopause. 
Raloxifene belongs to a group of drugs called Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs). It is a Second- generation agent. 

The principal use of Raloxifene is in the management of Post-menopausal Osteoporosis. It is also useful in Hormone sensitive Breast cancer (both prevention and treatment). 

It is important to remember that SERMs are partial Estrogen receptor antagonists. Raloxifene inhibits the estrogen receptors in breast while stimulates those in Bone marrow. Thus, it has tissue selective action which reduces the toxicity. Like Tamoxifen, it also lowers LDL cholesterol and thus has a favorable lipid profile. Side effects include hot flushes and calf pain (like Tamoxifen, but less incidence and severity). 

In contrast, Tamoxifen is a Pure Estrogen Receptor antagonist (1st Generation SERM). It causes significant side effects including Intravascular clotting, post-menopause like symptoms, hot flushes, calf pain, uterine bleeding, Uterine Carcinoma and Polyps. Its current use is limited to Management of Estrogen Sensitive Breast cancer. 

Third-generation drug, Bazedoxifene, has also been developed to treat osteoporosis and has similar effects to that of raloxifene. 

Apart from Raloxifene, Bisphosphonates, calcium supplements and Vitamin D supplements are used for management of post-menopausal Osteoporosis. 

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