Oxygen Dissociation Curve

# At higher CO2 concentration, oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin will:
A. Move to left
B. Move to right
C. Become irregular
D. Move upwardly

The correct answer is B. Move to right

Right shift of the curve (decreased affinity of Hb for Oxygen) is caused by the following factors:
- High PCO2
- Low blood pH
- High body temperature
- Increased level of 2,3 DPG (Diphosphorylglycerate or biphosphoglycerate)

Pneumotaxic center is present in:

# Pneumotaxic center related to respiration is located in:
A. Crura Cerebri
B. Medulla Oblongata
C. Pons Varoli
D. Parietal lobe

The correct answer is C. Pons varoli. 

Sterilizing Semi critical items

# In reference to the Spaulding Classification System for contaminated items, semi critical items should be reprocessed by:
A. Immersion in a tuberculocidal disinfectant
B. Heat sterilization if the material is heat stable
C. Washing with a chlorhexidine gluconate solution
D. A spray-wipe-spray technique

The correct answer is B. heat sterilization if the material is heat stable.

Semi critical items are defined as instruments that do not penetrate soft tissues or bone but are used inside the mouth and contact the mucosa.

These instruments must be sterilized after every use or must undergo high level disinfection if they are not heat stable.

Best Gloves for Protection

# Which of the following types of gloves should be utilized to provide the best protection during the cleaning of dental operatories?
A. Vinyl
B. Cotton
C. Utility
D. Latex

The correct answer is C. Utility gloves

Utility gloves are designed to provide best protection during cleaning of dental operatories. 
Utility gloves should be used during cleaning the dental operatories. 

Utility gloves are thicker than latex and vinyl gloves. 

These have larger cuffs and are designed to handle wastes more easily. 

Utility gloves have greater tear strength and are more water resistant. 

Physiology MCQs - Endocrinology - Multiple Choice Questions

# If a chemical agent is produced by a cell and if the agent acts on the same cell, the effect is termed as:
A. Endocrine effect
B. Paracrine effect
C. Autocrine effect
D. None of the above

# All of the following are autocoids except:
A. Histamine
B. Eicosanoids
C. Serotonin
D. Insulin

# The following is believed to be a second hormonal messenger in many tissues.
A. Cyclic AMP
B. Prostaglandins
C. Calcium ions
D. Adenyl cyclase

# Drug receptors for steroids are present in the:
A. Nuclear chromatin
B. Cell membrane
C. Cytoplasm
D. Nucleus

Highest number of death due to Corona Virus Infection (COVID-19)

# Most deaths due to COVID-19, an infection due to novel coronavirus has occurred till date (23rd March) in which country?
A. Russia
B. China
C. Italy

The correct answer is C. Italy.

No. of Deaths till Date.

Italy  - 5476
China - 3270
Russia - 1
USA -  458