CNS Questions Physiology - Yearwise sorted

1. Describe three basic functions of cerebrospinal fluid. (6)

2. Write about the spatial and temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials. (1.5+1.5=3)

3. How is a generator potential similar and different from a receptor potential? (1.5+1.5=3)

4. What is referred pain? How is it useful in diagnosing internal disorder? (1+2=3)

5. List and explain the pathways that control the motor activity of distal muscles. (4)

6. What is dysdiadochokinesia? It is observed in lesions of which part of the brain and why? (2+1+2=5)

7. What is muscle spindle? Draw a well labeled diagram of it. Explain briefly the role of gamma motor neuron on it. (1+3+2=6)

8. List the centers in the categorical hemisphere that are concerned with language comprehension and explain their functions. (4)

9. What is a conditional reflex? Explain operant conditioning with its physiological significance. (2+4=6)

1. Define adequate stimulus. Describe briefly the “Law of Specific Nerve Energies”. (5)

2. Tabulate the differences between electrical and chemical synapse. (5)

3. Compare and contrast between excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). (5)

4. Draw a well labeled diagram of a muscle spindle. Explain the role of gamma fiber on stretch reflex. (5)

5. Explain the mechanism how semicircular canals detect person’s head is rotating or stopped. (4)

6. Tabulate and list the following:
a. Name of the medial and lateral descending pathways.
b. Muscles they control and
c. Their functions

7. Define Habituation. Explain the mechanism involved for Habituation. (6)

8. Describe pathways of speech activated through perceived written language. (4)

1. Explain the mechanism of CSF formation. Mention any two functions of CSF. (3+2=5)

2. State the law of projection. Elaborate this law with a suitable example. (2+3=5)

3. Define receptor. Write down its any three properties. (2+3=5)

4. Describe the decerebrate rigidity. (5)

5. Tabulate and list the principal postural reflexes integrated at the level of the midbrain, their stimulus, response and receptors. (5)

6. Tabulate & compare between habituation and sensitization. (5)

7. List any two functions of parieto-occipitotemporal association area and describe any one of them. (1+4=5)

8. Define circadian rhythm. State its relationship with sleep-wakefulness with reference to melatonin. (5)

1. Describe the stages of non-rapid eye movement (Non-REM) sleep based on EEG findings. (6)

2. Explain the mechanism of long-term potentiation involved for long-term memory. (4)

3. Briefly describe the muscle spindle with diagram and analyze their function that controls muscle length. (5)

4. Briefly describe how the receptors in the vestibular apparatus detect angular and linear acceleration. (5)

5. Describe the neural circuitry of basal ganglia with the help of the diagram. (5)

6. With the help of a flow diagram, explain the neuronal descending pain inhibiting system. (5)

7. Explain synaptic inhibition with the help of suitable examples. (5)

8. Explain the adaptation of sensory receptors with the help of suitable examples. (5)

1. Describe cross extensor reflex with its reflex arc. Mention its termination. (4+2=6)

2. Mention any two functions of each of the following. (2+2=4)
a. Vestibulo-cerebellum
b. Cerebro-cerebellum

3. Draw a well labeled diagram of putamen circuit through basal ganglia and mention its one important function. (4+1=5)

4. Tabulate and compare the spatial and temporal summation of synaptic transmission with schematic diagram. (5)

5. Define sensory unit and receptive field of sensory unit. Explain importance of lateral inhibition with a suitable diagram. (2+3=5)

6. Explain endogenous pain relief system of the body. (5)

7. Describe paradoxical sleep. (5)

8. Diagrammatically show the neural pathway involved for spelling heard word in a blind person. (5)

1. Define receptor potential. Mention any two mechanisms of fast adaptation of Pacinian corpuscles. (1+2+2=5)

2. Describe spatial summation with diagram. (3)

3. Describe referred pain with an example and mention underlying mechanism with suitable diagram. (2+3=5)

4. A 43-year-old woman is brought to her primary care physician by her family because of concerns about her forgetfulness. Over the last year, she has become more forgetful. Once easy tasks (such as placing a telephone call, following directions, and housekeeping) are now becoming difficult. She has become lost, walking around the grounds and has difficulty naming objects and telling time. She often does not recognize old friends and forgets previous conversations. Physical examination confirms many of the memory and cognitive deficits. After a thorough workup, no specific etiology can be found, and the patient is diagnosed with Alzheimer disease. Now, answer the following questions:
a. What type of memory is available for conscious retrieval?
b. Which part of the brain stores semantic (factual) memories?
c. What is long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP)?

5. Write short notes on: (4+4=8)
a. Alpha waves in EEG
b. NREM sleep

6. Tabulate the differences in context to speech, comprehension, and repetition of various forms of aphasia. (4)

7. Describe the role of muscle spindle in stretch reflex. (4)

8. Describe in brief the functions of different functional divisions of the cerebellum. (4)

9. List the functional differences between autonomic and somatic motor systems. (4)

1. Enumerate the relationship between circadian rhythm and sleep wake cycle. (5)

2. Name the brain areas involved in language and describe their functions in it. (1+4=5)

3. Explain motivation and addiction in terms of brain area and pathway involved in it. (5)

4. Describe the acute effects of spinal shock. (5)

5. Describe pathophysiology of pain. (5)

6. Describe the function of cerebellum. (5)

7. Describe how a written word is interpreted by brain. (5)

8. State the brain areas for learning with their functions. (5)