Must know Facts about Local Anesthetics / LA

This table lists some unique properties of local anesthetic agents.

Properties Local Anesthetic
Natural local anesthetic agent
Cocaine
Local anesthetic agent with intrinsic vasoconstriction property
Cocaine
LA which is most dilating of all Procaine
  • LA which has least dilating property
  • LA which is used in patients in whom a vasoconstrictor is not required
Mepivacaine
Safest LA that is given in children 2-Chloroprocaine (due to short duration and less toxicity)
Most toxic of all LA agents
Propoxycaine
LA which causes methemoglobinemia
Prilocaine, Articaine
Properties Local Anesthetic
Waer insoluble topical anesthesia
  • Benzocaine
  • Lidocaine base (5%)
Water soluble topical anesthesia
  • Tetracaine
  • Lidocaine hydrochloride (2 or 4 %)
LA with the longest duration of action
Etidocaine (200 min)
Bupivacaine (175 min)
Tetracaine (175 min)
LA with the shortest duration of action 2-Chloroprocaine
LA which is widely used in dentistry Lidocaine
EMLA (Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) Lidocaine + Prilocaine
LA which causes cutaneous vasoconstriction Ropivacaine
LA with high pKa Value Procaine
LA which undergoes biotransformation in Kidney Prilocaine

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