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Unit 1- Genetics, Growth and Development and Immunology - BPKIHS Past Questions Collection

ANATOMY

 2016
1. Mention the types of chromosomal structural aberrations. 5
2. Draw a well labeled any 5 symbols used in making the pedigree. 5
3. Draw a labeled histological diagram of lymph node. 5
4. List the ethical principles in genetics. 5
5. List the indications for prenatal diagnosis. 5

2015
1. Mention splenic circulation with well labeled diagram. 5
2. Draw any five symbols of pedigree chart. 5
3. Mention the criteria for X-linked recessive disorders and any two examples of it. 5
4. Mention the indications for prenatal diagnosis. 5
5. Write any five chromosomal structural aberrations. 5

2014
1. Explain the pattern of inheritance in Autosomal Recessive inheritance with example. 5
2. Write a short note on age related histological changes in thymus. 5
3. Discuss about the splenic circulation. 5
4. Elaborate the process of Karyotyping. 5
5. List the indication of prenatal diagnosis. 5

2013
1. Classify chromosomal disorders. 5
2. Define genetic counseling and list its procedures. 5
3. Draw a labeled histological diagram of Thymus. 5
4. Write the theories of Splenic circulation. 5
5. List the indications for prenatal diagnosis. 5

2012
1. List the entities in white and red pulp of spleen and illustrate these in a labelled diagram. 2+2+1=5
2. Describe the structure of a splenic venous sinusoid. 5
3. Mention any five structural chromosomal aberrations with diagrams. 5
4. List the criteria for autosomal dominant inheritance. And list four examples of autosomal dominant disease conditions. 2.5+2.5=5
5. Classify lymphoid organs with examples. Write the relations of spleen. 2+3=5

2011
1. Illustrate with a labeled diagram of the histological features of:
a. Lymph node 4
b. Spleen 4
c. Tonsil 4
d. Name two clinical conditions associated with any two of the above organs. 1.5x2=3
2. Enumerate the indications for prenatal diagnosis. Mention at least five indications. 5
3. What is karyotyping? Name the cells commonly used in Karyotyping. 1+4=5

2010
1. Classify chromosomal disorders with examples of each. 5
2. Describe genetic screening and genetic counselling. 5
3. Draw a labeled diagram of spleen. 5
4. Write the criteria and examples of X-linked dominant disorder. 5
5. Mention the basis of lymph formation and its final destination. 5




PHYSIOLOGY

2016
1. Explain the mechanism by which complement system provides innate immunity. 5
2. Illustrate with the labeled diagram the role of helper T cells in immune response. 5
3. Define aging. Describe briefly about the free radical theory of aging. 5

2015
1. Describe the role of helper T cells in acquired immunity. 5
2. List the theories of aging. Describe briefly the most acceptable one. 5
3. Describe how complement system is activated and list their functions. 5

2014
1. Draw a growth curve depicting the growth of any two organs/systems up to the age of 20 years. List any three important factors involved in growth of a child. 3+3=6
2. Describe the role of T helper cells in acquired immunity. 4
3. Define innate immunity. Describe function of skin as innate immunity. 5

2013
1. Explain the pattern of growth in different parts of body with the help of labeled diagram. 5
2. With the help of flowchart explain how bacterial infection leads to antibody synthesis in peripheral lymphoid organs. 5
3. Explain the effect of aging in blood and immune mechanisms. 5

2012
1. Mention any three age related changes in nervous system. 3
2. Define growth and development. Describe the role of thyroid hormone on it. 2+3=5
3. Define innate immunity. Mention the role of gastric secretion as innate immunity. 1+3=4
4. Mention any three functions of helper T cells. 3

2011
1. Name the abnormalities of growth due to hormonal factors.   5
2. Describe the process of phagocytosis by the neutrophils. 5
3. What is the role of T lymphocytes in immunity? 5

2010
1. Explain the role of helper T cells in the formation of antibodies and regulation of immunity. 4
2. Define growth and development. Describe the physiological changes that occur in a newborn during progress towards adulthood. 2+4=6
3. State the theories of aging. Describe one of them. 2+3=5



BIOCHEMISTRY
2016
1. What is gene therapy? Explain any one mode of gene therapy.
2. Write a short note on epigenetics.
3. Describe the process of termination in prokaryotic transcription.
4. Explain in brief about prokaryotic gene regulation with a suitable example.
5. Describe the steps involved in polymerase chain reaction. Add a note on the biomedical importance of this technique.
6. Enumerate four post-translational modifications with suitable examples.
7. Describe the endocytic mode of antigen processing and presentation.
8. Enlist the different types of mutation. Shortly describe the various DNA repair mechanism occurring in our body.
9. Write the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA replication.


2015
1. Differentiate cell mediated immunity from humoral mediated immunity. 3
2. Explain point mutation with an example. 3
3. What are histones? Explain their role in the nucleus. 3
4. Illustrate Prokaryotic gene regulation with the help of suitable example. 4
5. Describe Cytosolic pathway (Endogenous antigen) of antigen processing and presentation by T cell. 4
6. How is recombinant DNA prepared in a laboratory? 4
7. Describe the different methods involved in termination of transcription. 4
8. Describe the steps involved in PCR. Add a note on the biomedical importance of this technique. 5
9. List three DNA repair mechanism and explain any one of them with example. 5

2014
1. Explain the mechanism of regulation of gene expression using Lac Operon Model. 5
2. List the steps of PCR. Explain the uses of PCR in medicine. 5
3. Draw an illustrated diagram the regions of eukaryotic typical gene. 5
4. Explain the role of post-translational modifications with two examples. 5
5. Write a brief note on genomic library. 5
6. Explain the molecular defects in xeroderma pigmentosum. 5
7. Define Satellite DNA. How is it categorized? 5

2013
1. Explain the terms affinity, avidity and adjuvants related to immune system. 3
2. What are restriction endonucleases? Highlight their roles in recombinant DNA technology. 4
3. Write the mechanism involved in switching to IgM to IgE. 4
4. Explain the roles of signals that help in termination of RNA synthesis in prokaryotes. 4
5. “Newly replicated two anti-parallel strands of DNA occur simultaneously but in opposite directions.” Justify this statement with the mechanisms involved in it. 5
6. Mention three antigen presenting cells. Explain how class II MHC molecules present antigens. 5
7. Outline the causes of DNA damage and give a brief account of DNA repair system. 5
8. Give a detailed account of the causes, types and effects of mutation. 5

2012
1. Illustrate with a diagram the structural organization of a typical immunoglobulin. 3
2. Explain the role of histones protein in DNA organization. 3
3. Draw a labelled diagram depicting the secondary structure of a typical tRNA muscle and mention the function of the different arms. 3
4. With the help of suitable diagram, describe the regulation of lac-operon in E. coli. 5
5. How are protein synthesized within ribosomes get targeted to the cell membrane?
6. Illustrate diagrammatically the phases of the cell cycle with their regulatory points.
7. What are MHC molecules and state one important application of determination of its expression in cells?
8. Describe the steps involved in Southern blotting and mention its application. 3+2=5
9. What is gene therapy? Describe any two modes of gene therapy. 2+3=5

2011
1. Describe the process involved in replication of DNA.
2. Discuss the types of DNA repair mechanisms.
3. Discuss the process involved in DNA transcription.
4. Define gene therapy. Explain any one mode of gene therapy.
5. Explain the principle of polymerase chain reaction and mention its utility. 5
6. How is the technique of DNA fingerprinting applied in medical sciences?
7. How is an antigen from viral protein processed and presented by antigen presenting cell?
8. Draw a labeled diagram of immunoglobulin G(IgG).

2010
1. Name vectors and its utility in molecular biology.
2. Describe the properties of genetic code.
3. State the steps of recombinant DNA technology? Enlist its two applications in medicine.
4. State the key steps and materials required for PCR.
5. Describe the role of Rho proteins in the termination of translation.
6. Define point mutation. Describe the various consequences of point mutation.
7. Define gene therapy. Explain any one mode of gene therapy.



MICROBIOLOGY
2016
1. Define antigen. Tabulate the differences between T cell dependent and T cell independent antigen. 5
2. In a tabulated form compare and contrast live and inactivated vaccine. 5
3. Write short notes on: 5x2=10
a. Profone phenomenon
b. Opsoniztion

2015
1. List antigen antibody reactions. Describe one type of it with appropriate examples. 5
2. Write short notes on: 5x3=15
a. Innate immunity
b. Complement pathway
c. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)

2014
1. Write short notes on: 5x2=10
a. Role of different non culture techniques used as diagnostic tool in laboratory
b. Live attenuated vaccine.
2. Define complement. Write briefly on its biological functions. 5
3. With a labeled diagram describe the structure of immunoglobulin G. 5

2013
1. Write note on the following:
a. Alternate pathway for the complement activation. 5
b. Biological structures of immunoglobulin G. 5
2. Lab diagnosis of opportunistic mycoses. 5
3. Labelled diagram of HIV. 5

2012
1. List antigen-antibody reactions. Write the principle and application of any one of the reactions. 5
2. Tabulate the difference between live attenuated and killed(inactivated) vaccine. 5
3. Draw a labeled diagram of immunoglobulin. 5
4. Write briefly on characteristics of antigens. 5

2011
1. Define antigen and antibody. Describe any three types of antigen-antibody reactions. 2+3=5
2. Describe any two non-cultural methods for microbial identification. 2.5+2.5=5
3. Describe the different mechanism involved in innate immunity to micro-organisms. 5
4. Draw a well labeled diagram of immunoglobulin G and mention any two biological functions of immunoglobulin. 3+2=5

2010
1. Life cycle of Leishmania donovani. 5
2. Write short note on vaccine. 5
3. Write short note on:
a. Non cultural techniques for diagnosis of Microbial infection. 5
b. Biological properties of IgG. 5


PATHOLOGY
2016
1. Enlist any four structural changes that can be seen in chromosomes. Define any one. 2+1=3
2. Describe the pathogenesis of HIV infection in brief. 3
3. Define hypersensitivity reaction. List the types of it and mention the involved mechanism in them. 1+3=4

2015
1. Explain the mechanism of tissue damage by Type III (three) hypersensitivity reaction. 5
2. Enlist primary immunodeficiency disorders. 5

2014
1. Enumerate the types of hypersensitivity reactions. Give at least two examples of each. Write briefly about the Type II hypersensitivity reaction. 2+1+2=5
2. Mention the effect or mechanisms of Allograft Rejection. Write down the morphological changes which occur in case of kidney. 2.5+2.5=5

2013
1. Define autoimmunity. Describe the mechanism of autoimmunity explaining the concept of central and peripheral tolerance. 1+4=5
2. Name Diagnostic tests for genetic disorders. 5

2012
1. Define Hypersensitivity Reaction. What are its type? Describe each of them with examples. 1+1+3=5
2. Write a short note on Amyloidosis. 5

2011
1. Discuss the pathogenesis of Lysosomal Storage Diseases (LSD). 5
2. Enumerate the different types of Hypersensitivity reactions with an example each. 5

2010
1. Mention about the pathogenesis of Lysosomal storage disease. 5
2. Write in brief the morphology of Transplant rejection reactions(kidneys). 5


PHARMACOLOGY
2016
1. Write the mechanism of action, common side effects, uses and contraindication and precaution of Sirolimus. 5

2015
1. How Azathioprine is effective as immunosuppressive agents? 2.5
2. Why anti-D immunoglobulin is not given to Rho-D positive mother? 2.5

2014
1. Mention the hazards of immunosuppressive therapy. 3
2. Explain the nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine. 2

2013
1. Write pharmacological effects,side effects, uses and contraindication and precaution of Cyclosporine. 5

2012
1. Mention immunosuppressive agents. Write mechanism of action, side effect, uses and contraindication of Tacrolimus. 5

2011
1. Explain the rationale behind the administration of immunosuppressants in organ transplantation. Name four immunosuppressant agents. 5
2010
1. Write the mechanism of action, common side effects and therapeutic uses of Azathioprine. 5

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