Paradoxical excitement in children

 # Which of the following can result in paradoxical excitement in children?
 A. Morphine
 B. Phenobarbitone
 C. Nitrous oxide
 D. Amphetamine

The correct answer is B. Phenobarbitone.

A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment,usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected. Paradoxical excitement is caused by barbiturates which also includes secobarbital. 

Reported to occur in approximately 3% of patients. In susceptible individuals,benzodiazepine treatment might increase anxiety,aggressiveness, agitation, loss of  impulse control, talkativeness, violent behavior, and even convulsions. 

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