Pediatric Dentistry MCQs - Child Behavior Management

# The main areas of concern in diagnosis and treatment planning for the child are:

A. Oral medical problems
B. Dental caries and restorative dentistry
C. Occlusion and craniofacial growth and development
D. All of the above

# Pedodontic triangle is given by:
A. Mischer
B. McDonanld
C. Finn
D. Wright

# Place of the child in the pedodontic treatment triangle is:
A. At the base
B. In the centre
C. At the apex
D. None of the above 


# Pedodontic treatement triangle depicts:
A. One to two relationship among dentist, pediatric patient, and parents
B. One to one relationship among dentist, pediatric patient, and parents
C. One to three relationshhip among dentist, pediatric patient and parents
D. None of the above

# Recently added in the centre of pediatric treatment triangle is:
A. Type of treatment
B. Society
C. Child response
D. Facilities in clinic

# Which of the following has greatest influence on a child's reaction to his initial visit to the dental office:
A. Parent
B. Dentist
C. Dental assistant
D. School teacher

# Key to effective child control management is:
A. Developing rapport with parents also
B. Developing rapport with child only
C. Ignoring child's fear
D. Domination of genuineness

# The most important aspect of pedodontic management is:
A. Child and parent education
B. Case presentation
C. Regular dental examinations
D. Parental concurrence

# Understanding child's behaviour requires knowledge of basic concepts of:
A. Dependence and independence
B. Maturation and learning
C. Masculinity and feminity
D. Generalisation and specification

# The aims of the first session with a child patient are all EXCEPT:
A. Establish general communication with the patient and parents
B. Start restorative procedures
C. Obtain background information of child
D. Take radiographs

# Communication is a complex multisensory, process. It includes:
A. Transmitter
B. Medium
C. Receiver
D. All of the above

# What is to be done in the initial stage of behaviour modification in children?
A. Adaptation
B. Awareness
C. Evaluation
D. Motivation

# Fear is:
A. A primary emotion acquired soon after birth
B. A primary emotion acquired in utero
C. A primary emotion acquired several years after birth
D. Not a primary emotion

# The fear of a 6 year old related to dentistry is primarily:
A. Subjective in nature
B. Objective in nature
C. Subjective and objective
D. Introspective in nature

# Fears produced by direct physical stimulation of sense organ of child is:
A. Wholesome
B. Objective
C. Subjective
D. Inordinate

# The basic fear of a child below 2 years on his first dental visit is related to:
A. Anxiety from being separated from parents
B. Fear of infection
C. Fear of bur sound
D. Fear of white dress worn by dentists and nurses

# Which type of fear is most usually difficult to overcome?
A. Long standing objective fears
B. Long standing subjective fears
C. Short term objective fears
D. Short term subjective fears

# A child visiting a dentist for the first time has basic fear of:
A. Unknown
B. Equipment
C. Tooth extraction
D. Pain

# Fear of strangers and fear of separation from parents for the children will be diminished by:
A. First birthday
B. Fifth birthday
C. Third birthday
D. Seventh birthday

# The best way to help a frightened child to overcome his fear:
A. Identify the fear
B. Ignore the fear
C. Ridicule the frightened child
D. Divert the patient's attention

# Basic reason for a 4 year old child who is aggressive in dental office:
A. Basic reaction of fear
B. Basic reaction of rejection
C. Basic reaction to underaffection
D. Spoiled child

# Fear is more common in:
A. Idiot child
B. Intelligent child
C. Autistic child
D. Cerebral palsy child

# Anxiety is:
A. Fear of Unknown
B. Fear to stranger
C. Fear of pain
D. Fear to object

# A cooperative child patient demonstrating resistance in the dental office is usually manifesting:
A. Anxiety
B. Anger
C. Inborn fear
D. Immaturity

# Which of the following are considered to be the effective methods of management of fears in a child?
A. Reconditioning, reassurance and explanation
B. Reconditioning, overcorrection and indifference
C. Reassurance, reconditioning and ridicule
D. Overprotection, indifference and ridicule

# A patient of 4 years old will respond favorably is dentist shows:
A. Submissiveness and compromise
B. Domination and generineness
C. Reasonning and concreteness
D. Empathy and respect

# The ability to understand and experience the fears of another without losing one's own positive and realistic differentiation of one's from the other's condition and behaviour is known as:
A. Empathy
B. Sympathy
C. Understanding
D. Common sense

# Universally used method of behaviour management in pediatric dentistry for both cooperative and uncooperative children is:
A. Voice control
B. Behaviour shaping
C. Implosion therapy
D. Communication

# During communication with a child patient the dentist can express involvement and interest primarily with:
A. Positive reinforcement
B. Verbal agreement
C. Eye contact
D. Body orientation

# In managing a seven year old child, the dentist should keep in mind that a child at this age is:
A. Frequently negative
B. Susceptible to praise
C. Generally uncooperative
D. Prone to sensation anxiety

# The best method to obtain cooperation from an uncooperative child in dental office is:
A. Persuade the child for cooperation
B. Punish the child for his misbehaviour
C. Display auhority and command respect of child and continue with treatment
D. Postpone the treatment until child shows cooperation

# The best method to gain cooperation of a child with a different cultural background is:
A. Attempt to speak in his language
B. Demonstrate the procedure before performing
C. Communicate through auxillary who can understand
D. All of the above

# Most realistic approach in managing a difficult child in dental clinic is:
A. Disregard the behaviour of the child
B. Make the child familiar with clinical atmosphere
C. Recondition the child by applied psychological methods
D. Physical methods to make child accept treatment

# A child verbally trying to mask his apparent feeling is said to be:
A. Neurotic
B. Incongruent
C. Inconsistent
D. None of the above

# Vidhya, a 3 year old comes for her predental visit. Patient's family possess a high dental risk. She is highly intelligent with family members and high IQ. You would do most probably what type of treatment:
A. Radiographs and topical fluoride
B. Get the patient accustomed to the dental clinic
C. Employ desensitization
D. Employ behaviour modification

# Which of the following is least likely to be effective in communicating with a mentally retarded patient:
A. Combining verbal and visual demonstrations
B. Verbal rationalization of patient's fears and anxieties
C. Rewarding appropriate behaviour by praising him verbally
D. Utilizing cooperative patients as models

# In treating mentally retarded children, it is generally found that they:
A. respond inconsistently
B. can be controlled in ways similar to normal children
C. Respond silimarly to normal children of the same mental age
D. All of the above

# One of the following is not a non-pharmacological approach of behavior management?
A. Voice control
B. Conscious sedation
C. Hypnosis
D. Tell show do technique

# Procedural sedation is of advantage in which of the following situations?
A. For management of anxious and cooperative patients
B. For improved quality of dental procedure
C. Can be used for in patients
D. In medically compromised patients

# The procedure which slowly develop behavior by reinforcing succesive approximations of the desired behavior until the desired behavior is achieved is termed as:
A. Behavior management
B. Behavior modification
C. Behavior shaping
D. Behavior control

# The following is not a communicative management technique according to American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) standards?
A. Voice control
B. Positive reinforcement
C. Physical restraint
D. Distraction

# Stimulus response theory is also known as:
A. Physical restraint
B. Aversive conditioning
C. Behavior shaping
D. Tender love and care

# All of the following are behavior shaping techniques except:
A. Desensitization
B. Tell show do
C. Modeling
D. Aversive conditioning

# Extinguishing of fears on successive dental visits, is an example of:
A. Modeling
B. Reinforcement
C. Association
D. Desensitization

# When a patient is exposed step by step in a hierarchy from the least to the most stressful procedures repeatedly until there is no evidence of stress, the procedure is known as:
A. Modeling
B. Desensitization
C. Restraining
D. Reinforcement

# Making the child observe when a dentist is working on a cooperative child is an example of:
A. Modelling
B. Reinforcement
C. Association
D. Desensitization

# In a three and a half year old uncooperative child for dental procedures, which should be the best technique?
A. Modelling
B. Physical restraint
D. Desensitization

# Should a new patient be shown a cooperative brother or sister experiencing a dental procedure?
A. Not usually
B. Only if the new patient is younger
C. Yes, it is a good idea
D. Makes no difference

# When a child is rewarded for his cooperative behaviour, it is known as:
A. Punishment
B. Restrainment
C. Positive reinforcement
D. Desensitization

# Reinforcement technique is based on:
A. Social learning
B. Freudian psychoanalytical theory
C. Reconditioning, reassurance and explanation
D. Massler's theory

# The art of reinforcing good behavior displayed by the child with verbal praise applies the:
A. Operant conditioning theory
B. Classical conditioning theory
C. Psychoanalytical theory
D. Social learning theory

# The principle that 'the stimulus must be altered to elicit a change in the response' is applied in:
A. Reinforcement
B. Aversive conditioning
C. Retraining
D. Modeling

# A frightened child is exposed to a dental clinic setting which is pleasant, colorful and different from a previous clinic where a painful experience occurred. The child is happy and treatment is completed. The psychological conditioning principle used here is:
A. Acquisition
B. Generalization
C. Extinction
D. Discrimination

# White noise is a method of:
A. Distraction
B. Music
C. Analgesia
D. All of the above

# Which of the following is commonly used for immobilization of the head in a non-compliant patient?
A. Papoose board
B. Pedi-wrap
C. Forearm-body support
D. All of the above

# In restraining of child everything is involved except:
A. Avoidance
B. Discrimination
C. Pedi-wrap and Papoose board
D. Aversive conditioning

# Pedi-wrap are:
A. Restrainer
B. Not used for pediatric patients
C. Are similar to posey straps
D. Used to control the head

# The non pharmacologic technique that has remained a corner stone of behavior management is:
A. Tell-show-do
B. Averse conditioning
C. Hand over mouth exercise
D. Voice control

# "Tell-show-do" technique of child management was introduced by:
A. Bandura
B. Addleson
C. Coope
D. Wright

# Psychological basis of "Tell-show-do" technique is:
A. Desensitization due to familiarity
B. Overcoming the influences of overindulgence
C. Distraction from unpleasant things
D. All of the above

# In a fearful 9 year old child which of the following techniques should be employed?
C. Desensitization
D. Normal conversation

# Mode of technique used in blind child is:
A. Tell-Show-Do
B. Tell-Feel-Do
D. Physical restraints

# Joseph Wolpe developed the following behaviour management technique:
A. Modeling
B. Tell-show-do
C. Desensitization
D. Voice control

# Which of the following techniques has been used to manage the disruptive child patient?
A. Voice control, physical restraint
B. Hand over mouth technique and its variations
C. Hypnosis
D. Premedication

# HOME is:
A. Aversive technique
B. Remodeling
C. Psychologic improvement
D. None

# Hand over mouth technique was first described by:
A. Dr. Evangeline Jordan
B. Addleson and Goldfried
C. Dr. GV Black
D. Dr. Goldman

# Aversive conditioning (HOME) technique to control child will be applied to which category according to Frankl's behavior rating scale?
A. Definitely positive (++)
B. Definitely Negative (--)
C. Positive (+)
D. Negative (-)

# Hand over mouth exercise (HOME) is effective behavioural modification technique in the age group of:
A. 3 to 6 years
B. Under 3 years
C. 6 to 9 years
D. Above 9 years

# HOME technique should not be applied to:
A. 5 years old child
B. Who exhibits hysterical behavior during treatment but mentally sound
C. Child who can understand simple verbal commands but exhibiting inconsolable behaviour
D. Immature frightened child

# If the use of a technique on a child is objectionable enough that the child will cooperate in order to avoid it, that technique will come under:
A. Pharmacological domain
B. Physical domain
C. Aversive domain
D. Reward oriented domain

# In making a child of temper tantrums to accept dental treatment, the dentist:
A. Should apply principle of firmness
B. Should use physical methods to control the child
C. Should use general anesthesia to treat this child
D. Should use premedication to treat this child

# Best approach for managing a 6 year old child with temper tantrum:
A. Tell-show-do technique
B. Voice control
C. Premedication
D. Postponing appointment

# Who advocated that a change in facial expression during "voice control" as a technique in child management?
A. David Chamber
B. J.C. Brauer
C. Pinkham
D. Sullikham and Harris

# Voice control has the effect of:
A. Frightening the child
B. Making child know his limits of misbehaviour
C. Making child forcefully accept dental treatment
D. All of the above

# Which of the following is true regarding voice control during dental treatment of children?
A. It should be a monotonous soothing conversation
B. It is a sudden and firm command
C. It is intended to frighten the child
D. It can be used on a two year old child

# When dentist says,"I cannot fix your teeth if you do not open your mouth wide", he is employing:
A. Voice control
B. Behaviour shaping
C. Negative reinforcement
D. Problem ownership

# The loss of voice control as behavior therapy as child becomes familiar to dentist is an example of:
A. Extinction
B. Superstition
C. Reinforcement
D. Association

# Best method for communicating with a fearful deaf child is:
A. Speaking loudly
B. Normal conversation pace
C. Use sign language
D. Speak with prominent lip movements

# 'Whistle' is a word substitute for explaining the following instrumentin children:
A. High speed handpiece
B. Suction apparatus
C. Low speed handpiece
D. Air syringe

# Euphemisms are:
A. Fear promoting words
B. New words substitutes
C. Opposite words
D. Lisping words

# Altered state of consciousness characterized by a heightened suggestibility to produce desirable behavioral and psychological changes is called:
A. Coping
B. Hypnosis
C. Biofeedback
D. Implosion therapy

# Visual analog scale is used to measure:
A. Degree of pain
B. Degree of anesthesia
C. Degree of consciousness
D. Degree of motor activity

# Before sedating a child:
A. Not essential to take the consent
B. Essential to take the written consent
C. Needed to consult the pediatrician
D. Essential for the parents to be present

# Barbiturates in pediatric dentistry:
A. Are contraindicated
B. Have a low safety margin
C. Can be used safely
D. Are not required and therefore not necessary to use

# Which of the following can result in paradoxical excitement in children?
A. Morphine
B. Phenobarbitone
C. Nitrous oxide
D. Amphetamine

# First dental visit of child is:
A. One month after birth
B. Within 6 months of eruption of first primary teeth
C. Within 3 years
D. Within 2 years

# First dental visit of a child should be preferably:
A. Below 2 years
B. 2-3 years
C. 3-4 years
D. 4-5 years

# Best time to see a 3-year old in the dental office is:
A. Early in the morning
B. Just before lunch
C. Just after lunch
D. Any time

# Scheduling the pediatric patients in the morning is:
A. Undesirable
B. Desirable
C. Depends on the dentist
D. Depends on the child

# Preschool child should not be given appointment at:
A. Early morning
B. Nap time
C. Evenings
D. Late morning

# True about knee-to-knee method for examination of infant is all except:
A. Parent supports head of infant, operator holds hands
B. Can be used at home for brushing teeth of infant
C. Gloved finger and lighting pen can be used
D. Done in 18 month old baby

# How a two year old child is placed for examination in dental office?
A. On dental assistant's lap
B. On mother's lap
C. On the dental chair separated from the parents
D. On the dentist's lap itself

# Lap to lap position is the recommended position for performing oral hygiene procedures in:
A. 0-1 year old
B. 1-3 yeas old
C. 3-6 years old
D. 6-12 years old

# Information of a tooth to be extracted in child of six to eight years old is:
A. Given to child in preceding appointment after planning extraction
B. Never given to child as it may hurt him
C. Given to child immediately before the procedure
D. Not relevant

# To minimize gagging and overcome fear in a child while taking an impression, it is recommended:
A. Rinse the child's mouth with anesthetic mouthwash
B. Secure mandibular impressions first
C. Secure maxillary impressions first
D. None of the above

# Toys can be used in the management of child in dental clinic as:
A. a bribe
B. a gift
C. appreciation of good behaviour
D. reward

# A child's mother can be allowed to remain in operatory room of dental clinic for which of the following children?
A. A child with temper tantrums
B. An apprehensive but cooperative child of 2 years
C. A child of 7 years with unknown fears
D. All of the above

# Who among the following classified habits as 'empty and meaningful'?
A. James 1923
B. Kingsley 1958
C. Klein 1972
D. Finn 1987

# The most difficult form of child abuse to identify and treat is:
A. Sexual abuse
B. Physical abuse
C. Emotional abuse
D. Munchausen syndrome by proxy

# The concept of 'DENTAL HOME' was introduced by:
A. Arthur Nowak
B. Evangeline Jordan
C. Paul Casayassimo
D. George White

# The term 'anesthesia by copper' was used to:
A. Indicate extraction where copper was used as LA
B. Indicate the extraction done by Dr. Copper
C. Indicate the incentive of a penny for good behaviour
D. Indicate surgical instrument made of copper

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